The Applied Research Program (ARP) is one of five programs in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS). ARP's mission is to understand how and why cancer care and control activities in the United States influence patterns of care and trends in cancer incidence, morbidity, mortality and survival. Pursuit of this mission is possible through ARP's support of methodologic research to improve survey data collection and clinical databases, development of assessment tools for use in clinical trials and observational studies, as well as analysis of existing cancer control data. These data are used to evaluate patterns and trends in cancer-associated health behaviors and risk factors, health care services, economics, and outcomes, including patient-reported outcomes. ARP collaborates with grantees and many public and private partners. ARP's research initiatives, tools, and resources contribute in important ways to the translation of research knowledge into effective policies across the cancer control continuum. ARP supports research and evaluation activities in three branches: Health Services and Economics Branch. Focuses on the study of cancer-related health services;Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. Focuses on monitoring of cancer-related health behaviors and risks in populations, as well as improved measurement of those factors;and Outcomes Research Branch. Focuses on cancer outcomes measurement, analysis, and improvement. The Office of the Associate Director sets Program priorities, determines ARP resource use and staff responsibilities, and carries out initiatives that support the mission of the ARP within the DCCPS. Research supported by ARP is targeted to: Monitoring cancer-relevant risks and health behaviors;Improving methods for assessing cancer-relevant exposures;Advancing methods and systems for measuring and monitoring quality of cancer care;Evaluating and improving methods for measuring cancer outcomes;Estimating costs and benefits of cancer interventions at the population level;Describing and understanding cancer-related health disparities;and Improving dissemination of efficacious cancer control interventions. Research in each area informs policy decisions in cancer prevention, treatment, and control. Staff also provide analytical support to other NCI cancer prevention and control research programs for NCI-wide program guidance, evaluation, and policy development.