A ?biologic nanoparticle? is the basis of this proposal. The plant virus nanoparticle (PVN) is based on a virus that: exists in the human food chain;is nontoxic and of low immunogenicity;can load medical imaging agents and/or therapeutic drugs into its ?cargo chamber? by a simple process;and can be engineered to identify and enter cancer cells and release drug payloads inside cell structures, such as the nucleus where most anticancer drugs operate, bypassing most cancer cell defenses. It has a highly evolved sensor/actuator system to release cargo only in the targeted cell. In this Phase II project, NanoVector, Inc. will: perform mouse pharmacology studies and efficacy studies using human melanoma xenografts;increase PVN production efficiency and scalability;perform long term toxicity studies with biodistribution and bioelimination data, as well as early IND enabling studies, and initiation of large animal studies.