Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women worldwide. Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer and its precursor, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), that result from persistent high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HIV clinical practice guidelines recommend two Pap tests in the year following diagnosis, and if both are normal, yearly thereafter. Nationally, only 25% of women meet this recommendation. The mean annual Pap testing rate for federally-funded HIV centers is only 55.7%. In 2009, quality improvement statistics from the Johns Hopkins Hospital Moore Clinic, a large urban HIV center, revealed an annual Pap testing rate of 59%. This occurred despite interventions to address adherence issues were implemented, including nurse case- management, co-location of HIV and gynecology services, flexible scheduling, and continuity of care. Women keep their appointments for HIV primary care more often than for gynecology care in the Moore Clinic, so an intervention that takes place during a primary care visit could improve cervical cancer screening rates. The availability of HPV testing provides a unique opportunity to increase perceived susceptibility to and severity of cervical cancer among women with HIV, and to encourage follow-up Pap testing. HPV testing involves analyzing a sample of cervicovaginal cells for the presence of high-risk HPV strains. Detection of high- risk strains of the virus indicates a high risk for high grade CIN and cancer, while a negative HPV test predicts a less than 2% risk of developing CIN. HPV testing can be easily conducted by women themselves through self-collection in a primary care visit. Studies of women without HIV who do not have regular Pap testing have demonstrated that self-collected HPV testing and results counseling increases the overall screening rate, and women who test positive for HPV have a high rate of follow-up Pap testing. Self-collected HPV testing and results counseling could be utilized in the HIV primary care setting to promote Pap testing among women with HIV. The proposed study is a randomized trial to test whether receiving self-collected HPV testing and results counseling in HIV primary care will increase completion of Pap testing in a group of women attending the Johns Hopkins Hospital Moore Clinic for HIV Care. The study is informed by the Health Belief Model (HBM), which posits that screening behavior will increase if persons at risk for disease have a cue to action that increases their perception of susceptibility to and severity of the disease. In this study, the HPV test and results counseling are cues to action that also correctly identify those women at high risk for disease. To achieve these aims, 80 women who are late for Pap testing will be recruited for participation while they are at an HIV care appointment. They will be randomized to HPV self-collection and results counseling, or to receive usual care. Six months after enrollment, medical records will be reviewed for completion of Pap testing in the intervening months.

Public Health Relevance

It is essential to improve cervical cancer screening rates for women with HIV. The proposed study is a randomized trial to test whether receiving self-collected HPV testing and results counseling in HIV primary care will increase completion of Pap testing in a group of women attending the Johns Hopkins Hospital Moore Clinic for HIV Care. The study is informed by the Health Belief Model (HBM), which posits that screening behavior will increase if persons at risk for disease have a cue to action that increases their perception of susceptibility to and severity of the disease.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Type
Predoctoral Individual National Research Service Award (F31)
Project #
5F31NR013633-02
Application #
8587442
Study Section
National Institute of Nursing Research Initial Review Group (NRRC)
Program Officer
Banks, David
Project Start
2012-09-01
Project End
2014-08-31
Budget Start
2013-09-01
Budget End
2014-08-31
Support Year
2
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$42,232
Indirect Cost
Name
Johns Hopkins University
Department
Other Health Professions
Type
Schools of Nursing
DUNS #
001910777
City
Baltimore
State
MD
Country
United States
Zip Code
21218