In utero and early life experiences affect physiological development and can influence sensitivity to environmental factors throughout life. Data on early life risk factors, however, are typically not available to investigators who study associations between ambient air pollutant concentrations and pediatric asthma exacerbations. In the state of Georgia, birth records (1994-2007) have been linked with pediatric emergency department visits (2002-2007) by staff at the Georgia Department of Human Resources. This novel linkage between 1.8 million birth records and 5.5 million pediatric emergency department visits will be used to investigate whether children who were born premature or low birth weight are more sensitive to ambient air pollutant concentrations than their counterparts. If effect modification by gestational age or birth weight is observed, then these findings will help inform public health policy decisions, since protection of sensitive subgroups is central to EPA's mission as a regulatory agency. Further, within Metropolitan Atlanta, a research air quality monitoring station provides daily concentrations for a comprehensive suite of components of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter, a resource also not typically available to investigators. These measurements can be used to distinguish among the various compounds that comprise particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter, and the proposed study will be the first to investigate associations between these compounds and pediatric emergency department visits in a birth cohort. Complex interactions between ambient air pollutants and airborne pollens on pediatric asthma exacerbations will be investigated using an innovative modeling approach based on two- dimensional loess smoothers in the framework of generalized additive models. Ambient air pollutants are known to cause asthma exacerbations in children. To inform public health policy decisions it is important to know whether certain subgroups of asthmatic children have increased susceptibility to air pollutants, and the proposed study will be the first to investigate whether children who were born premature or low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to air pollution.

Public Health Relevance

Ambient air pollutants are known to cause asthma exacerbations in children. To inform public health policy decisions it is important to know whether certain subgroups of asthmatic children have increased susceptibility to air pollutants, and the proposed study will be the first to investigate whether children who were born premature or low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to air pollution.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
Type
Research Scientist Development Award - Research & Training (K01)
Project #
5K01ES019877-05
Application #
8660693
Study Section
Transplantation Biology &Immunology-2 (AITC)
Program Officer
Finn, Symma
Project Start
2010-09-10
Project End
2015-04-30
Budget Start
2014-05-01
Budget End
2015-04-30
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
Emory University
Department
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Type
Schools of Public Health
DUNS #
City
Atlanta
State
GA
Country
United States
Zip Code
30322
Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H; Holmes, Heather A et al. (2016) Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002-2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements. Environ Health Perspect 124:875-80
Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Mulholland, James A et al. (2016) Pediatric emergency department visits and ambient Air pollution in the U.S. State of Georgia: a case-crossover study. Environ Health 15:115
Strickland, Matthew J; Hao, Hua; Hu, Xuefei et al. (2016) Pediatric Emergency Visits and Short-Term Changes in PM2.5 Concentrations in the U.S. State of Georgia. Environ Health Perspect 124:690-6
Strickland, Matthew J; Gass, Katherine M; Goldman, Gretchen T et al. (2015) Effects of ambient air pollution measurement error on health effect estimates in time-series studies: a simulation-based analysis. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 25:160-6
Gass, Katherine; Balachandran, Sivaraman; Chang, Howard H et al. (2015) Ensemble-based source apportionment of fine particulate matter and emergency department visits for pediatric asthma. Am J Epidemiol 181:504-12
Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana et al. (2014) Air pollution and acute respiratory infections among children 0-4 years of age: an 18-year time-series study. Am J Epidemiol 180:968-77
Strickland, Matthew J; Marsh, Caitlin A; Darrow, Lyndsey A (2014) Gestational age-specific associations between infantile acute bronchiolitis and asthma after age five. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 28:521-6
Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana et al. (2014) Modification of the effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits: susceptible subpopulations. Epidemiology 25:843-50
Gass, Katherine; Klein, Mitch; Chang, Howard H et al. (2014) Classification and regression trees for epidemiologic research: an air pollution example. Environ Health 13:17
Winquist, Andrea; Kirrane, Ellen; Klein, Mitch et al. (2014) Joint effects of ambient air pollutants on pediatric asthma emergency department visits in Atlanta, 1998-2004. Epidemiology 25:666-73

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