The purpose of this K01 Mentored Research Scientist Development Award is to support the applicant in developing the skills necessary to become an independent researcher in the implementation and sustainment of autism-related interventions in school settings. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and lifelong developmental disability that affects 1 in 88 children in the United States. With the growing number of children with ASD enrolled in public schools, it is imperative that schools implement and sustain evidence- based interventions (EBIs) to improve children's academic, behavioral, and social outcomes. The 2012 Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee Strategic Plan for ASD Research states that successful implementation in community settings of EBIs is lacking, and there are no specific studies that examine these issues. This K01 application capitalizes on an existing university-community partnership with the School District of Philadelphia to systematically examine implementation issues of a district-mandated autism EBI in urban public schools on a large scale. Under the mentorship of David Mandell, ScD, and a team of expert consultants, the proposed training and research activities will enable the applicant to: 1) understand which organizational factors affect implementation in schools;2) develop expertise in mixed methods design to understand how organizational factors promote or impede implementation processes in public schools;and 3) acquire expertise in developing implementation interventions to address modifiable variables to improve the use and sustainment of autism EBIs in schools. The research activities associated with these training goals include three aims that build upon each other.
Aim 1 will use quantitative methods to examine staff- and school-level factors as predictors of implementation and sustainment of an EBI for children with ASD.
Aim 2 will use qualitative methods to further explore the staff-and school-level factors uncovered in Aim 1 by closely examining the implementation processes for a subset of high and low performing classrooms implementing an EBI for children with ASD. Lastly, in Aim 3, the applicant will develop an implementation intervention to support schools in their use and sustainment of autism EBIs. Findings from the proposed research projects have the potential to provide schools with the necessary supports to use EBIs and markedly improve the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of children with ASD in public school settings.

Public Health Relevance

The work proposed in this application, Staff and School Factors Affecting Implementation of ASD Interventions in Schools, has the potential to help public schools implement and sustain evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to support many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The mentorship, training, and research activities proposed in this K01 award will result in an in-depth understanding of the implementation process in schools including what staff- and school-level factors promote or impede implementation and are likely to change with an implementation intervention. With the growing number of children with ASD enrolled in public schools, there is a great need for independent investigators with the knowledge to conduct this type of work to establish university-community partnerships to support schools in their implementation and sustainment of EBIs to improve children's academic, behavioral, and social outcomes.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Research Scientist Development Award - Research & Training (K01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (SERV)
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Hill, Lauren D
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University of Pennsylvania
Schools of Medicine
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Locke, Jill; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Harker, Colleen et al. (2017) Pebbles, rocks, and boulders: The implementation of a school-based social engagement intervention for children with autism. Autism 21:985-994
Locke, Jill; Williams, Justin; Shih, Wendy et al. (2017) Characteristics of socially successful elementary school-aged children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 58:94-102
Azad, Gazi F; Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie et al. (2017) Race, disability, and grade: Social relationships in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism 21:92-99
Locke, Jill; Kang-Yi, Christina D; Pellecchia, Melanie et al. (2017) Ethnic Disparities in School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use for Children With Psychiatric Disorders. J Sch Health 87:47-54
Freeman, Laura MacMullen; Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin et al. (2017) Brief Report: Examining Executive and Social Functioning in Elementary-Aged Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord 47:1890-1895
Chang, Ya-Chih; Locke, Jill (2016) A systematic review of peer-mediated interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder. Res Autism Spectr Disord 27:1-10
Kang-Yi, Christina D; Locke, Jill; Pellecchia, Melanie et al. (2016) Decline in Medicaid-Funded One-to-One Behavioral Support Use in School as Children Age. School Ment Health 8:344-353
(2016) Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration (SIRC) 2015: advancing efficient methodologies through community partnerships and team science : Seattle, WA, USA. 24-26 September 2015. Implement Sci 11 Suppl 1:85
Kang-Yi, Christina D; Locke, Jill; Marcus, Steven C et al. (2016) School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use and Expenditures for Children With Autism and Children With Other Disorders. Psychiatr Serv 67:101-6
Anderson, Ariana; Locke, Jill; Kretzmann, Mark et al. (2016) Social network analysis of children with autism spectrum disorder: Predictors of fragmentation and connectivity in elementary school classrooms. Autism 20:700-9

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