Understanding the details of metabolism of lipids in normal humans is essential to the development of effective dietary and pharmaceutical prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The fundamental processes of fatty acid release from adipocytes, the uptake of plasma free fatty acids by muscle and adipose tissue and the contribution of extracellular lipolysis of triglyceride rich lipoproteins to the free fatty acid pool are only partially understood. Epidemiologic and dietary studies suggest that there are differences in fatty acid metabolism based on fatty acid structure (saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated). This proposal addresses gaps in the knowledge of fatty acid metabolism by testing the following hypotheses: 1. Oleate and palmitate generated by lipoprotein lipase lipolysis of circulating triglycerides spill over into the plasma free fatty acid pool more than linoleate. 2. Adipose tissue releases fatty acids selectively. 3. Changes in insulin sensitivity, endothelial function and blood pressure vary by the structure of fatty acids infused enterally to elevate free fatty acids. These hypotheses will be tested using triglyceride and fatty acid tracer dilution techniques, high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Two of the studies will be done using intravenous infusion tracers with one study also using oral lipid tracers.
Specific aim 1 uses tracers with a mixed meal, specific aim 2 utilizes tracers with hormone infusions and specific aim 3 uses oral unlabeled fatty acid infusion in the form of a triglyceride with a pure fatty acid structure with measures of endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and changes in inflammatory markers compared to saline ingestion. These studies will provide the applicant with an opportunity to develop further the skills necessary to achieve his long-term goal of becoming an independent investigator exploring the relationship between lipid metabolism and diabetes.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases B Subcommittee (DDK)
Program Officer
Hyde, James F
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Mayo Clinic, Rochester
United States
Zip Code
Almandoz, Jaime P; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A et al. (2013) Spillover of Fatty acids during dietary fat storage in type 2 diabetes: relationship to body fat depots and effects of weight loss. Diabetes 62:1897-903
Nelson, Robert H (2013) Hyperlipidemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Prim Care 40:195-211
Nelson, Robert H; Mundi, Manpreet S; Vlazny, Danielle T et al. (2013) Kinetics of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Diabetes 62:783-8