The goal of this project is to provide an evidence-based approach to guide repeated mass antibiotic treatments in trachoma control. Trachoma remains the leading cause of infectious blindness. The cause of trachoma, ocular Chlamydia infection, is cleared with a single dose of azithromycin. However, given the community pool of Chlamydia, re-infection after treatment is common. Therefore, mass azithromycin treatment has been advocated to reduce the community pool of ocular Chlamydia. An NEI-funded trial is currently underway in Ethiopia to test the efficacy of different treatment strategies for trachoma, using mass antibiotic distributions. Nonetheless, much is still unknown about mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma. Using the data collected during this clinical trial, I will address the following specific aims: 1) To determine the relationship between clinical signs of trachoma and laboratory evidence of Chlamydia infection after antibiotic treatment. 2) To determine community predictors of post-treatment prevalence of ocular Chlamydia. 3) To determine the cost-effectiveness of different treatment strategies for trachoma. My career development plan includes didactics and mentorship. I plan on courses in epidemiology, biostatistics, and health economics at UCSF during the first 2 years of the grant. I will concentrate on data analysis during the remaining 3 years, with excellent mentors at UCSF: Drs. Thomas Lietman, Todd Margolis, George Rutherford, and Dean Jamison. My short term goal is to become an independent researcher in epidemiology and health economics, with a focus on developing countries. My long term goal is have a successful, productive career as an academic ophthalmologist and epidemiologist.

Public Health Relevance

Trachoma research can influence public health programs relatively quickly, through the advocacy of the World Health Organization. The proposed research will help trachoma programs to decide whether or not to continue mass antibiotic treatments, to decide which communities to target for treatment, and to decide how to allocate their limited resources.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZEY1-VSN (05))
Program Officer
Agarwal, Neeraj
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of California San Francisco
Schools of Medicine
San Francisco
United States
Zip Code
Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Prajna, N Venkatesh et al. (2014) Acanthamoeba, fungal, and bacterial keratitis: a comparison of risk factors and clinical features. Am J Ophthalmol 157:56-62
Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi et al. (2014) Visual recovery in treated bacterial keratitis. Ophthalmology 121:1310-1
McClintic, Scott M; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V; Srinivasan, Muthiah et al. (2014) Visual outcomes in treated bacterial keratitis: four years of prospective follow-up. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:2935-40
McClintic, S M; Srinivasan, M; Mascarenhas, J et al. (2013) Improvement in corneal scarring following bacterial keratitis. Eye (Lond) 27:443-6
Haile, Meron; Tadesse, Zerihun; Gebreselassie, Sintayehu et al. (2013) The association between latrine use and trachoma: a secondary cohort analysis from a randomized clinical trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:717-20
Keenan, Jeremy D; Emerson, Paul M; Gaynor, Bruce D et al. (2013) Adult mortality in a randomized trial of mass azithromycin for trachoma. JAMA Intern Med 173:821-3
Keenan, Jeremy D; Ayele, Berhan; Gebre, Teshome et al. (2012) Ribosomal RNA evidence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection following 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions in communities with highly prevalent trachoma. Clin Infect Dis 54:253-6
Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ausayakhun, Sakarin et al. (2012) Clinical features of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis in northern Thailand. Am J Ophthalmol 153:923-931.e1
Chen, Jenny; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Tangmonkongvoragul, Chulaluck et al. (2012) Incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus following negative initial screening examination results. Arch Ophthalmol 130:527-9
Keenan, Jeremy D; See, Craig W; Moncada, Jeanne et al. (2012) Diagnostic characteristics of tests for ocular Chlamydia after mass azithromycin distributions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:235-40

Showing the most recent 10 out of 20 publications