This application is a revised competing renewal for a K24 Mid-Career Scientist Award in Patient-Oriented Research. The original period of this award, which ends on June 30, 2014, focused broadly on understanding the mechanisms underlying elevated risk for cigarette smoking in individuals with ADHD, and specifically on neurobiological and genetic factors that may contribute to this risk. Consistent with the overall objectives of the K24 mechanism, the award aims emphasized the mentorship of junior investigators in patient-oriented research as it pertains to cigarette smoking. During the original project period, we were highly successful across the research, career development, and mentorship aims. As such, the overall goal of this competing renewal application is to extend our work on the common comorbidity between smoking/nicotine dependence in individuals with ADHD. In particular, we will apply the findings of our mechanistic work supported by the original project to the development of novel approaches to smoking cessation and prevention for this common and costly comorbidity. In particular, the scientific and career development goals of this application will be to characterize and evaluate the construct of motivation as it pertains to smoking in individuals with ADHD. Along with relevant faculty colleagues at Duke, Dr. Kollins will explore motivational processes from several different perspectives in smokers with and without ADHD. Consistent with the broad goals of the K24 mechanism, these aims will also provide a rich environment for the continued mentorship of junior investigators.

Public Health Relevance

Individual with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is more likely to smoke cigarettes than the general population. They are also more likely to become regular smokers more quickly following initial use. Little is known about why individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for smoking or what the best ways to prevent or treat smoking might be. This proposed project will help develop more effective ways to prevent and treat smoking in individuals with ADHD and will also help train a new generation of investigators to study this important and costly problem.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research (K24)
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Risk, Prevention and Intervention for Addictions Study Section (RPIA)
Program Officer
Lin, Yu
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Duke University
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Mitchell, John T; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Tunno, Angela M et al. (2016) "I Use Weed for My ADHD": A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD. PLoS One 11:e0156614
Mitchell, John T; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H (2015) Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions. Cogn Behav Pract 22:172-191
Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S et al. (2015) An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults. J Subst Abuse Treat 48:96-103
Lee, Chien-Ti; Clark, Trenette T; Kollins, Scott H et al. (2015) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences. Drug Alcohol Depend 148:180-7
Wigal, Sharon B; Greenhill, Laurence L; Nordbrock, Earl et al. (2014) A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluating the time course of response to methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 24:562-9
Schoenfelder, Erin N; Faraone, Stephen V; Kollins, Scott H (2014) Stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 133:1070-80
Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E et al. (2014) Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 165B:691-704
Kollins, Scott H; Adcock, R Alison (2014) ADHD, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and disrupted reinforcement processes: implications for smoking and nicotine dependence. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 52:70-8
Adjei, Akwete; Kupper, Robert J; Teuscher, Nathan S et al. (2014) Steady-state bioavailability of extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) capsule vs. immediate-release methylphenidate tablets in healthy adult volunteers. Clin Drug Investig 34:795-805
Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S et al. (2014) Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Subst Use Misuse 49:1446-56

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