"Generation and Function." We propose an integrated program to analyze CD4 and CD8 T cell memory against the respiratory pathogens causing influenza (flu) and tuberculosis (TB). In sophisticated animal models, we will define subsets of CD4 and CD8 memory T cells and determine the cellular and molecular basis of their generation, functions, location, persistence and relationship to other T cell subsets. This will greatly extend our basic understanding of immunity. "Generation and Persistence of CD4 Memory Subsets" (Swain), will determine the relationships of different functional subsets of CD4 T cells and will determine if they become functionally committed subsets of memory and define their protective functions. They will separate subsets of effector and memory CD4 T cells that work by killing infected targets and compare them to those that cause inflammation and secrete an inflammatory factor IL-17, and those that act by helping B cells. "CD8 Memory T Cells Mechanisms of Protection" (Dutton) will identify the mechanisms used by the CD8 T cell subsets that parallel those in Project 1 for CD4 subsets. In particular they will study the IL-17 producing subset of CD8 T cells that their preliminary data show plays a key role in protection against influenza, and compare these Tc17 to Tc1 subsets and define their function and protective abilities and mechanisms of action. "Regulation Of T Cell Homeostasis and Memory" (Bradley), will determine whether signals from "selectins" expressed on lung cells control CD4 and CD8 T cell responses and are needed for the development and persistence of CD4 memory cells. They will determine if selectin binding capacity identifies a distinct functional subset of CD4 cells, and what CD4 responses are selectin-dependent. "T Cell Memory to TB in the Lung" (Cooper), will determine factors that regulate induction of protective memory CD4 T cells, especially of the Th17 subset. They will also examine factors in the lung that regulate expression of memory T cell function in the lung and determine whether modulating the IL-17 memory response in the lung can increase protection. Defining the mechanisms by which memory T cell subsets provide protective immunity, is likely to result in identification of new correlates of protection for flu and TB, that will inform future vaccines targeted towards inducing robust T cell memory in addition to antibody, so that immunization will be effective even when new strains of TB and flu, including pandemic flu, emerge.
We believe that identifying the T cell subsets that contribute to protection and by defining mechanisms that regulate their generation and persistence, novel insights relevant to new strategies for improved vaccines will be obtained.
|McKinstry, K Kai; Strutt, Tara M; Bautista, Bianca et al. (2014) Effector CD4 T-cell transition to memory requires late cognate interactions that induce autocrine IL-2. Nat Commun 5:5377|
|Torrado, Egidio; Fountain, Jeffrey J; Robinson, Richard T et al. (2013) Differential and site specific impact of B cells in the protective immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse. PLoS One 8:e61681|
|Hamada, Hiromasa; Bassity, Elizabeth; Flies, Amanda et al. (2013) Multiple redundant effector mechanisms of CD8+ T cells protect against influenza infection. J Immunol 190:296-306|
|Torrado, Egidio; Cooper, Andrea M (2013) Cytokines in the balance of protection and pathology during mycobacterial infections. Adv Exp Med Biol 783:121-40|
|McKinstry, K Kai; Dutton, Richard W; Swain, Susan L et al. (2013) Memory CD4 T cell-mediated immunity against influenza A virus: more than a little helpful. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 61:341-53|
|Brown, Deborah M; Lee, Sarah; Garcia-Hernandez, Maria de la Luz et al. (2012) Multifunctional CD4 cells expressing gamma interferon and perforin mediate protection against lethal influenza virus infection. J Virol 86:6792-803|
|Torrado, Egidio; Cooper, Andrea M (2011) What do we really know about how CD4 T cells control Mycobacterium tuberculosis? PLoS Pathog 7:e1002196|
|Torrado, Egidio; Robinson, Richard T; Cooper, Andrea M (2011) Cellular response to mycobacteria: balancing protection and pathology. Trends Immunol 32:66-72|
|McKinstry, K K; Strutt, T M; Swain, S L (2011) Hallmarks of CD4 T cell immunity against influenza. J Intern Med 269:507-18|
|Cooper, A M; Mayer-Barber, K D; Sher, A (2011) Role of innate cytokines in mycobacterial infection. Mucosal Immunol 4:252-60|
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