This revised PPG competing renewal application is driven by the fundamental and therapeutic importance of costimulatory pathways for regulating T cell activation and tolerance, and builds upon our significant progress since initial awarding of this PPG in 2003. The synergy in our PPG is highlighted by 111 publications, 49 of which have been co-authored by multiple PPG investigators, and include 33 new publications since the first (May 2007) submission. Our PPG also has had a significant role in mentoring fellows who work on joint projects, and fostering development of junior faculty. Our PPG has not only provided novel insights to the field, but allowed sharing of novel mAbs and fusion proteins, and mouse strains with the broader scientific community that resulted in better understanding of the functions of costimulatory pathways above and beyond our PPG aims. The overall objective of our PPG is to achieve a mechanistic understanding of the roles of pathways in the B7:CD28 family in regulating T cell activation and tolerance. Building upon our published and preliminary data, these goals include: 1) investigate roles of these pathways in regulating T cell responses in target tissues versus lymphoid organs, 2) dissect functional hierarchy, dominance and redundancy among these pathways, and 3) study how these pathways regulate the balance between protective and pathogenic T cell responses, ultimately determining the fate of the immune response, using experimental models of transplantation, autoimmunity, and infection. The proposed PPG renewal application will provide a means by which PPG investigators can continue to work together to address these important issues and develop a comprehensive understanding of the functions of B7:CD28 family members, ultimately leading to development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This PPG will facilitate communication among PPG investigators and sharing of a rich collection of tools, transgenic/knockout mice and mAbs and Ig fusion proteins, to address these issues. The use of the same standardized reagents and experimental animals makes it possible to compare and contrast results in different microenvironments and disease models. There will be 3 Projects (Transplantation, Autoimmunity, Infection) and 3 Cores (Administrative, Antibody/lg fusion protein, Transgenic/Knockout). The """"""""Administrative Core"""""""" will be responsible for providing scientific direction and coordination, fiscal oversight and administrative support for the PPG. Overall, this PPG should provide fundamental knowledge for therapeutic manipulation of these important regulatory pathways.

Public Health Relevance

}: These studies will provide the basis for understanding how, where and when costimulatory molecules regulate allograft rejection, organ-specific autoimmune diseases, and chronic viral infection These studies have implications for developing novel immunotherapies based on targeting costimulatory pathways for human chronic viral infections, cancer, autoimmune diseases and transplantation.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Program Projects (P01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-RJ-I (J1))
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Lapham, Cheryl K
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Harvard University
Schools of Medicine
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MacDonald, Kelli Pa; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R (2017) Cytokine mediators of chronic graft-versus-host disease. J Clin Invest 127:2452-2463
Moffett, Howell F; Cartwright, Adam N R; Kim, Hye-Jung et al. (2017) The microRNA miR-31 inhibits CD8+ T cell function in chronic viral infection. Nat Immunol 18:791-799
Kamphorst, Alice O; Wieland, Andreas; Nasti, Tahseen et al. (2017) Rescue of exhausted CD8 T cells by PD-1-targeted therapies is CD28-dependent. Science 355:1423-1427
Guo, Yanxia; Walsh, Alice M; Fearon, Ursula et al. (2017) CD40L-Dependent Pathway Is Active at Various Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Progression. J Immunol 198:4490-4501
MacDonald, Kelli P A; Hill, Geoffrey R; Blazar, Bruce R (2017) Chronic graft-versus-host disease: biological insights from preclinical and clinical studies. Blood 129:13-21
Rigas, Diamanda; Lewis, Gavin; Aron, Jennifer L et al. (2017) Type 2 innate lymphoid cell suppression by regulatory T cells attenuates airway hyperreactivity and requires inducible T-cell costimulator-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand interaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 139:1468-1477.e2
Juneja, Vikram R; McGuire, Kathleen A; Manguso, Robert T et al. (2017) PD-L1 on tumor cells is sufficient for immune evasion in immunogenic tumors and inhibits CD8 T cell cytotoxicity. J Exp Med 214:895-904
Zhang, Ruan; Sage, Peter T; Finn, Kelsey et al. (2017) B Cells Drive Autoimmunity in Mice with CD28-Deficient Regulatory T Cells. J Immunol 199:3972-3980
Hippen, K L; O'Connor, R S; Lemire, A M et al. (2017) In Vitro Induction of Human Regulatory T Cells Using Conditions of Low Tryptophan Plus Kynurenines. Am J Transplant 17:3098-3113
Du, Jing; Paz, Katelyn; Flynn, Ryan et al. (2017) Pirfenidone ameliorates murine chronic GVHD through inhibition of macrophage infiltration and TGF-? production. Blood 129:2570-2580

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