With an estimated 33 million persons living with HIV-1, 2.1 millions deaths from AIDS in 2007, and 2.5 million new HIV-1 infections per year worldwide, the global impact of HIV-1 and AIDS continues to be overwhelming, despite advances in treatment of chronic HIV-1 infection and improved access to treatment in developing countries Even in the United States, whose epidemic is dwarfed by that in developing countries, HIV-1 infection has had major health and social impacts: an estimated 1.3 million persons were living with HIV-1 infection and 56,000 people were newly infected in 2007[1,2]. Virologic and immunologic data germane to development of biomedical preventative strategies such as vaccines is critically important. 3.1 Viral Correlates of Sexual Transmission of HIV-1. The strongest viral correlate of sexual transmission has been plasma HiV-1 RNA levels[3,4]. HIV RNA levels in plasma and genital secretions correiate[5,6] and seminal plasma have been correlated with transmission probability[7,8]. More recent data suggest that distinct viral variants may be enriched in genital secretions compared with blood plasma although data are conflicting [9-12]. Many studies of sexual transmission over the years have shown that infections with HIV-1 subtype B typically (current estimates are ??70-80[13,14,15]) originate from single virus founders. However, data from heterosexual African women and men who had recently acquired HIV-1 subtypes A or D demonstrated that 20 of 32 women had multiple viral variants whereas all 10 of the men studied had a single variant^^. These data suggest that sex of the Infected individual or viral subtype might modify the characteristics of the transmitted virus. Other studies have suggested that other viral characteristics such as such as env glycoprotein N-llnked glycosylation or env lengths may impact transmissibility^^'^^, though again this may be subtype-specific[2021] (see Projects 1 and 3 for more detailed discussions).

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Stekler, Joanne D; Milne, Ross; Payant, Rachel et al. (2018) Transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations within partner-pairs: A cross-sectional study of a primary HIV infection cohort. PLoS Med 15:e1002537
Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E et al. (2017) Accounting for dropout reason in longitudinal studies with nonignorable dropout. Stat Methods Med Res 26:1854-1866
Obermeit, Lisa C; Beltran, Jessica; Casaletto, Kaitlin B et al. (2017) Evaluating the accuracy of self-report for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND): defining ""symptomatic"" versus ""asymptomatic"" HAND. J Neurovirol 23:67-78
Hu, Xintao; Valentin, Antonio; Rosati, Margherita et al. (2017) HIV Env conserved element DNA vaccine alters immunodominance in macaques. Hum Vaccin Immunother 13:2859-2871
Patel, Rena C; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee et al. (2017) Brief Report: Hormonal Contraception Is Not Associated With Reduced ART Effectiveness Among Women Initiating ART: Evidence From Longitudinal Data. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 75:91-96
Ma, Qing; Vaida, Florin; Wong, Jenna et al. (2016) Long-term efavirenz use is associated with worse neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected patients. J Neurovirol 22:170-8
Smith, Kellie N; Mailliard, Robbie B; Piazza, Paolo A et al. (2016) Effective Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Targeting of Persistent HIV-1 during Antiretroviral Therapy Requires Priming of Naive CD8+ T Cells. MBio 7:
Hu, Xintao; Valentin, Antonio; Dayton, Frances et al. (2016) DNA Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimen To Increase Breadth, Magnitude, and Cytotoxicity of the Cellular Immune Responses to Subdominant Gag Epitopes of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus and HIV. J Immunol 197:3999-4013
Collier, Ann C; Chun, Tae-Wook; Maenza, Janine et al. (2016) A Pilot Study of Raltegravir Plus Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Challenges and Lessons Learned. Biores Open Access 5:15-21
Magaret, Amalia S; Mujugira, Andrew; Hughes, James P et al. (2016) Effect of Condom Use on Per-act HSV-2 Transmission Risk in HIV-1, HSV-2-discordant Couples. Clin Infect Dis 62:456-61

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