Effective prevention strategies for HIV are critically needed, and an effective HIV vaccine is the best long-range hope to dramatically reduce the rate of new HIV infections. To this goal, our current understanding of the biology and epidemiology of HIV transmission remains limited. This Program Project will focus on the identification and systematic evaluation of individuals who have been recently infected with HIV and the sexual partners who transmitted HIV to them (Transmission Pairs) to elucidate and quantify epidemiologic, behavioral, biologic, virologic, and host factors that contribute to transmission. The San Diego Primary Infection research group has a long and successful history of recruiting acutely and very recently HIV-infected individuals and their transmitting partners. With new approaches to expand our identification of such study participants, as described in the Clinical and Specimen Core, we will address in Project 1 (Transmission Probability):
(Aim 1) the transmission probability per contact ((J), (Aim 2) the rate of partner change (c), (Aim 3) the duration of infectious stages (D), and thus determine the reproductive number (R0) of HIV in this population. These investigations will be complemented with Project 2 (Transmission Correlates) that will identify and quantify the contributions of important biologic (Aim 1), viral (Aim 2), and host (Aim 3) correlates of HIV sexual transmission. Most importantly, this research will allow for the accurate estimation of a potential prevention strategy or candidate vaccine's anticipated efficacy based on both an estimation of the target populations'ongoing risk behavior and a thorough understanding of viral and host factors that contribute to HIV transmission. The Administrative Core (Core A) will play a central role in coordinating the administrative, fiscal, data, and statistical support for this Project as well as providing scientific support and facilitating synergistic interaction among investigators and collaborators critical to the success of the interactive projects. The Clinical and Specimen Core (Core B) will identify, recruit and enroll study subjects and collect, process, store, and manage the clinical specimens needed to meet the objectives of the two proposed research projects.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Program Projects (P01)
Project #
5P01AI074621-05
Application #
8225277
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-MH-A (S1))
Program Officer
Mckaig, Rosemary G
Project Start
2008-03-15
Project End
2014-02-28
Budget Start
2012-03-01
Budget End
2014-02-28
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$4,146,197
Indirect Cost
$1,325,557
Name
University of California San Diego
Department
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
804355790
City
La Jolla
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92093
Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha et al. (2016) Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening. Emerg Infect Dis 22:532-4
Gianella, Sara; Letendre, Scott (2016) Cytomegalovirus and HIV: A Dangerous Pas de Deux. J Infect Dis 214 Suppl 2:S67-74
Hoenigl, Martin; Little, Susan J (2016) How can we detect HIV during the acute or primary stage of infection? Expert Rev Mol Diagn 16:1049-1051
Hoenigl, Martin; Graff-Zivin, Joshua; Little, Susan J (2016) Costs per Diagnosis of Acute HIV Infection in Community-based Screening Strategies: A Comparative Analysis of Four Screening Algorithms. Clin Infect Dis 62:501-11
Chaillon, Antoine; Hoenigl, Martin; Mehta, Sanjay R et al. (2016) A practical online tool to estimate antiretroviral coverage for HIV infected and susceptible populations needed to reduce local HIV epidemics. Sci Rep 6:28707
Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Moore, David J et al. (2016) Clear Links Between Starting Methamphetamine and Increasing Sexual Risk Behavior: A Cohort Study Among Men Who Have Sex With Men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 71:551-7
Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H et al. (2016) Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria. PLoS One 11:e0151478
Dan, Jennifer M; Massanella, Marta; Smith, Davey M et al. (2016) Brief Report: Effect of CMV and HIV Transcription on CD57 and PD-1 T-Cell Expression During Suppressive ART. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 72:133-7
Kassanjee, Reshma; Pilcher, Christopher D; Busch, Michael P et al. (2016) Viral load criteria and threshold optimization to improve HIV incidence assay characteristics. AIDS 30:2361-71
Yang, S; Lok, J J (2016) A goodness-of-fit test for structural nested mean models. Biometrika 103:734-741

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