The broad, long-term objective of the proposed research Is to provide Insight Into how the BER and RAD51 variants In the normal population and In tumors contribute to altered DNA repair capacity, Altered DNA repair capacity can drive carcinogenesis and Is Important for designing personalized cancer therapy.
The specific aims are: (1) to test the hypothesis that variants of NTHI, NEIL1, 2, 3, and RAD51 that are found in the normal population and In tumors are linked to cancer;(2) to test the hypothesis that DNA glycosylase and RAD51 variants arising in the normal population and In tumors lead to genomic instability;and (3) to test the hypothesis that DNA repair variants Influence cellular responses to DNA damaging agents. To accomplish these alms we will express the variants in tissue culture cells and determine if they Induce cellular transformation. We will also Initiate studies to Identify additional tumor-associated variants within our collection of DNA samples Isolated from colon and breast carcinomas. We will measure the in vivo mutation frequency and generate mutation spectra to determine the types of mutations that result from cells expressing variant DNA glycosylases and Rad51. In cells expressing these variants we will also characterize responses to ionizing radiation, cisplatin, and other appropriate agents to determine if they Influence DNA repair. Information gleaned from Project 1 will guide additional biochemical and structural studies on the variants In Projects 2 and 3 as well as their Interactions with nucleosomes In Project 4. Core A will provide the bioinformatics and statistical Infrastructure for Project 1 and Core B will provide protein constructs and enzymes.

Public Health Relevance

These studies will advance our understanding of how DNA repair variants contribute to individual cancer risk and how they drive carcinogenesis. Moreover, the enzyme variants present in tumors may be exploited to treat cancer.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Research Program Projects (P01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZCA1)
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University of Vermont & St Agric College
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Cannan, Wendy J; Tsang, Betty P; Wallace, Susan S et al. (2014) Nucleosomes suppress the formation of double-strand DNA breaks during attempted base excision repair of clustered oxidative damages. J Biol Chem 289:19881-93
Wallace, Susan S (2014) Base excision repair: a critical player in many games. DNA Repair (Amst) 19:14-26
Nelson, Shane R; Dunn, Andrew R; Kathe, Scott D et al. (2014) Two glycosylase families diffusively scan DNA using a wedge residue to probe for and identify oxidatively damaged bases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:E2091-9
Lubula, Mulu Y; Poplawaski, Amanda; Glass, Karen C (2014) Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the BRPF1 bromodomain in complex with its H2AK5ac and H4K12ac histone-peptide ligands. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 70:1389-93
Prakash, Aishwarya; Carroll, Brittany L; Sweasy, Joann B et al. (2014) Genome and cancer single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human NEIL1 DNA glycosylase: activity, structure, and the effect of editing. DNA Repair (Amst) 14:17-26
Sjolund, Ashley; Nemec, Antonia A; Paquet, Nicolas et al. (2014) A germline polymorphism of thymine DNA glycosylase induces genomic instability and cellular transformation. PLoS Genet 10:e1004753
Lee, Andrea J; Warshaw, David M; Wallace, Susan S (2014) Insights into the glycosylase search for damage from single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. DNA Repair (Amst) 20:23-31
Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E; Averill, April M et al. (2013) Structural investigation of a viral ortholog of human NEIL2/3 DNA glycosylases. DNA Repair (Amst) 12:1062-71
Liu, Minmin; Doublie, Sylvie; Wallace, Susan S (2013) Neil3, the final frontier for the DNA glycosylases that recognize oxidative damage. Mutat Res 743-744:4-11
Odell, Ian D; Wallace, Susan S; Pederson, David S (2013) Rules of engagement for base excision repair in chromatin. J Cell Physiol 228:258-66

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