This proposal brings together investigators with great expertise in tobacco carcinogenesis and genome wide association studies to investigate ethnic/ racial differences in lung cancer due to cigarette smoking. Among cigarette smokers, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk, while Japanese Americans and Latinos have a lower risk for lung cancer than European Americans. We hypothesize that these differences in lung cancer susceptibility are due to ethnic and racial variations in exposure and response to cigarette smoke carcinogens. This hypothesis will be tested through a unique combination of genetic, biomarker, and mechanistic studies using innovative techniques and relying on superb internationally recognized expertise. If this hypothesis is supported, our mechanistic understanding of tobacco-induced lung cancer will increase immensely, thus providing important new insights for lung cancer prevention. Project 1, """"""""Multiethnic Genome Scan of Metabolic Phenotypes"""""""" will examine the association of common genetic variants with phenotypic biomarkers of tobacco smoke constituent uptake and metabolic activation in different ethnic/racial groups. A genome wide association study of five ethnic/racial groups (450 subjects per group) will be carried out and the results integrated with those of tobacco smoke constituent biomarkers for nicotine and carcinogens. The highly integrated Projects 2-5 will collaborate with Project 1 and use the superb expertise of the project leaders to study the relevant mechanisms. Project 2, """"""""Nicotine and NNK Glucuronidation Pathways in Smokers,"""""""" will investigate ethnic differences in the metabolism of nicotine and the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), focusing on the crucial glucuronidation detoxification pathway. Project 3, """"""""Ethnic/Racial Differences in 1,3-Butadiene Metabolism and DNA Adduct Formation,"""""""" will focus on ethnic and racial differences in the metabolism of 1,3- butadiene. Project 4, """"""""Ethnic/Racial Differences in DNA Repair,"""""""" will investigate the critical role of DNA repair in protecting against mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke carcinogens. Project 5, """"""""Metabolism of NNK among African Americans,"""""""" will directly test the hypothesis that there are ethnic and racial differences in the metabolism of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK. The projects will be supported by three Cores: A, Administrative;B, Tobacco Smoke Constituent Biomarker;and C, Biostatistics. The unique combination of expertise in this program project forms a powerful team arguably unmatched in its ability to address mechanisms of lung cancer development in smokers from different ethnic/racial groups.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Program Projects (P01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZCA1-RPRB-7 (O1))
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Johnson, Ronald L
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University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Patel, Yesha M; Park, Sunghim L; Han, Younghun et al. (2016) Novel Association of Genetic Markers Affecting CYP2A6 Activity and Lung Cancer Risk. Cancer Res 76:5768-5776
Park, Sungshim L; Tiirikainen, Maarit I; Patel, Yesha M et al. (2016) Genetic determinants of CYP2A6 activity across racial/ethnic groups with different risks of lung cancer and effect on their smoking intensity. Carcinogenesis 37:269-79
Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Jain, Vipin et al. (2016) Optimized Liquid Chromatography Nanoelectrospray-High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Analysis of 4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-Releasing DNA Adducts in Human Oral Cells. Chem Res Toxicol 29:1849-1856
Zanetti, Krista A; Wang, Zhaoming; Aldrich, Melinda et al. (2016) Genome-wide association study confirms lung cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5p15 and 15q25 in an African-American population. Lung Cancer 98:33-42
Patel, Yesha M; Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G et al. (2016) Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer. PLoS One 11:e0156203
Haiman, Christopher A; Patel, Yesha M; Stram, Daniel O et al. (2016) Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort. PLoS One 11:e0150641
Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock et al. (2015) High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation. Chem Biol Interact 241:23-31
Zarth, Adam T; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S (2015) Benzene oxide is a substrate for glutathione S-transferases. Chem Biol Interact 242:390-5
Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun et al. (2015) Combined analysis of the tobacco metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine. Anal Chem 87:1514-7
Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun et al. (2015) Variation in levels of the lung carcinogen NNAL and its glucuronides in the urine of cigarette smokers from five ethnic groups with differing risks for lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 24:561-9

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