General anesthetics are widely used during surgery and other clinical procedures, yet they are extremely dangerous and their mechanisms remain poorly understood. Understanding their actions at the molecular level will enable development of new drugs with more therapeutic specificity. The overall aim of this project is to define the mechanisms of potent general anesthetics at known therapeutic targets: synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. Photolabeling, structural homology modeling, mutant studies, and mechanistic analysis have established structural and functional models for etomidate actions at synaptic aiP2Y2L receptors, providing a new paradigm for other potent anesthetics such as propofol and barbiturates, and extra-synaptic GABAARS containing different subunits. Our working hypothesis is that at synaptic cci(32/372 and extrasynaptic OAPSS GABAA receptors, different potent anesthetics bind to distinct sub-regions of intra-membrane pockets formed at a-p subunit interfaces, with each subunit contributing a channel-lining transmembrane M2 domain and one other: a-M1 and P-M3. Anesthetic binding facilitates rearrangement of these pockets, stabilizing open channel states, thereby reducing neuronal activity. We propose to electrophysiologically study expressed GABAARS of defined subunit composition, developing a detailed mechanism of anesthetic actions at the macrocurrent level and determining how structural changes in the putative drug pockets affect anesthetic interactions and channel gating.
Specific Aim 1 is to investigate anesthetic-photolabeled amino acids in aip2/3y2L (synaptic) GABAARS and their roles in channel gating and the affinity/efficacy of etomidate, propofol, and pentobarbital. Mutagenesis, including cysteine mutagenesis and state-dependent modification, together with electrophysiological analysis based on an equilibrium co? agonist gating model will be used.
Specific Aim 2 is to build an allosteric-kinetic model for etomidate modulation of aiP2/3'y2L GABAARS and to develop allosteric co-agonist models for propofol and pentobarbital. Macrocurrent kinetic electrophysiology will be performed using an "artificial synapse" for rapid application of GABA and anesthetics, and kinetic models will be assessed for their ability to quantitatively account for the data.
Specific Aim 3 is to extend the above approaches to a4p35 (extrasynaptic) GABAARS.
Specific Aim 4 is to collaborate with other PPG projects by assessing new photolabel anesthetics and guiding time-resolved photolabeling experiments.
|Eaton, Megan M; Germann, Allison L; Arora, Ruby et al. (2016) Multiple Non-Equivalent Interfaces Mediate Direct Activation of GABAA Receptors by Propofol. Curr Neuropharmacol 14:772-80|
|Zhang, Xi (2016) Instant Integrated Ultradeep Quantitative-structural Membrane Proteomics Discovered Post-translational Modification Signatures for Human Cys-loop Receptor Subunit Bias. Mol Cell Proteomics 15:3665-3684|
|Forman, Stuart A; Miller, Keith W (2016) Mapping General Anesthetic Sites in Heteromeric Î³-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Reveals a Potential For Targeting Receptor Subtypes. Anesth Analg 123:1263-1273|
|Chiara, David C; Jounaidi, Youssef; Zhou, Xiaojuan et al. (2016) General Anesthetic Binding Sites in Human Î±4Î²3Î´ Î³-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors (GABAARs). J Biol Chem 291:26529-26539|
|Amlong, Corey A; Perkins, Mark G; Houle, Timothy T et al. (2016) Contrasting Effects of the Î³-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Î²3 Subunit N265M Mutation on Loss of Righting Reflexes Induced by Etomidate and the Novel Anesthetic Barbiturate R-mTFD-MPAB. Anesth Analg 123:1241-1246|
|Ziemba, Alexis M; Forman, Stuart A (2016) Correction for Inhibition Leads to an Allosteric Co-Agonist Model for Pentobarbital Modulation and Activation of Î±1Î²3Î³2L GABAA Receptors. PLoS One 11:e0154031|
|Nourmahnad, Anahita; Stern, Alex T; Hotta, Mayo et al. (2016) Tryptophan and Cysteine Mutations in M1 Helices of Î±1Î²3Î³2L Î³-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Indicate Distinct Intersubunit Sites for Four Intravenous Anesthetics and One Orphan Site. Anesthesiology 125:1144-1158|
|Forman, Stuart A; Chiara, David C; Miller, Keith W (2015) Anesthetics target interfacial transmembrane sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuropharmacology 96:169-77|
|Hamouda, Ayman K; Wang, Ze-Jun; Stewart, Deirdre S et al. (2015) Desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) and [3H]dFBr-Labeled Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Mol Pharmacol 88:1-11|
|Liu, K; Jounaidi, Y; Forman, S A et al. (2015) Etomidate uniquely modulates the desensitization of recombinant Î±1Î²3Î´ GABA(A) receptors. Neuroscience 300:307-13|
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