Scope of the problem: Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide1'2. Estimates suggest that about 18 million Americans abuse alcohol3 and that Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) affects over 10 million people in the United States4. Alcohol abuse's deleterious effects on the liver lead to three pathologically distinct entities: Alcoholic Fatty Liver, Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (ASH) and cirrhosis. Fatty liver occurs in up to 90% of alcoholics, of whom 10-35% have alcoholic hepatitis on liver biopsy5'6. The spectrum of alcoholic hepatitis can range from mild transaminase elevation as the only indication of disease, to severe liver dysfunction with complications such as jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, esophageal varices, coagulopathy and coma. In severe cases, reported mortality ranges from 30 to 60%6. Progression to cirrhosis occurs at a variable rate and different studies have reported this outcome in 10 to 30% of affected subjects with ALD. Alcoholic cirrhosis remains among the most common indications for liver transplantation worldwide7.

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National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
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Cleveland Clinic Lerner
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Barnes, Mark A; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Nagy, Laura E (2014) Innate immunity and cell death in alcoholic liver disease: role of cytochrome P4502E1. Redox Biol 2:929-35
Bakhautdin, Bakytzhan; Das, Dola; Mandal, Palash et al. (2014) Protective role of HO-1 and carbon monoxide in ethanol-induced hepatocyte cell death and liver injury in mice. J Hepatol 61:1029-37
Thapaliya, Samjhana; Runkana, Ashok; McMullen, Megan R et al. (2014) Alcohol-induced autophagy contributes to loss in skeletal muscle mass. Autophagy 10:677-90
Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Nagy, Laura E; McIntyre, Thomas M (2014) Chronic ethanol ingestion induces oxidative kidney injury through taurine-inhibitable inflammation. Free Radic Biol Med 69:403-16
Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Chiang, Dian J; McMullen, Megan R et al. (2014) Moderate, chronic ethanol feeding exacerbates carbon-tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis via hepatocyte-specific hypoxia inducible factor 1? Pharmacol Res Perspect 2:e00061
Cresci, Gail A; Bush, Katelyn; Nagy, Laura E (2014) Tributyrin supplementation protects mice from acute ethanol-induced gut injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 38:1489-501
Barnes, Mark A; McMullen, Megan R; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy et al. (2013) Macrophage migration inhibitory factor contributes to ethanol-induced liver injury by mediating cell injury, steatohepatitis, and steatosis. Hepatology 57:1980-91
Dixon, Laura J; Flask, Chris A; Papouchado, Bettina G et al. (2013) Caspase-1 as a central regulator of high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PLoS One 8:e56100
Dixon, Laura J; Barnes, Mark; Tang, Hui et al. (2013) Kupffer cells in the liver. Compr Physiol 3:785-97
Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; McMullen, Megan R; Pisano, Sorana G et al. (2013) Absence of receptor interacting protein kinase 3 prevents ethanol-induced liver injury. Hepatology 57:1773-83

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