: A fundamental claim of biofield therapies is that energy is emitted by the practitioner and received by the patient (recipient). However, there are no laboratory studies attempting to examine psychophysiological and biophysical effects of biofield mechanisms in practitioners and recipients simultaneously. As part of the Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science, this three year exploratory project applies established psychophysiological measures (primary measures: heart rate variability, laboratory and 24 hour; and EEG spectral analyses) as well as innovative biophysical measures (secondary measures: dynamic ECG-EEG synchrony; tertiary measures: high frequency X ray emission, and gamma ray absorption and / or scattering), to test biofield predictions that are hypothesized to discriminate between (1) an emitting biofield therapy (Johrei) and (2) a receiving bjofield therapy (Yan Xin Qigong). Two studies (Study 1:Cross-sectional; Study 2: Prospective) compare practitioners of Johrei therapy and Yan Xin Qigong with matched controls. Practitioners of Johrei (developed in Japan) and Yan Xin Qigong (developed in China) are committed to Western research and evidence-based medicine. Johrei and Qigong both believe that practitioners receive energy from the environment. However, the intention of Johrei therapy is primarily for practitioners to heal others (e.g. patients), whereas the intention of Yan Xin Qigong is primarily to help practitioners heal themselves. Study 1 compares experienced Johrei practitioners (N=32) with Qigong practitioners (N=32), and age and sex matched controls (N=32). The design includes examining psychophysiological and biophysical measures during pre-post resting conditions as well as during the practice of Johrei, the practice of Qigong, or the practice of a simple relaxation-response in nonpractitioner controls. It is hypothesized that the practice of Johrei and Qigong will be associated with increased heart rate variability and EEG alpha-theta (primary measures) compared to the relaxationresponse controls. However, based on previous innovative findings, increased ECG-EEG synchrony, increased high frequency X ray emission, and increased gamma ray absorption / scattering effects arc expected in the Johrei Group compared to the Qigong group. Study 2 replicates Study I using a prospective design: beginners will be tested before and after four months of Johrei training (N=32), and compared with four months of Qigong training (N=32) versus a group of matched waiting list controls (N=32). It is hypothesized that findings from Study 1 will he replicated following four months of training (Study 2). These basic science laboratory studies will be the first to explore possible psychophysiological and biophysical mechanisms in biofield therapies. These studies will advance the scientific foundations of the biofield concept and biofield therapeutics.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)
Exploratory Grants (P20)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZAT1)
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University of Arizona
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Sugarman, Jeremy (2015) Is Shared Decision Making an Appropriate Analytic Frame for Research on Medical Practices? Am J Bioeth 15:18-20
Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary (2009) Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students. Hisp Health Care Int 7:72
Baldwin, Ann Linda; Wagers, Christina; Schwartz, Gary E (2008) Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats. J Altern Complement Med 14:417-22
Campesino, Maureen; Schwartz, Gary E (2006) Spirituality among Latinas/os: implications of culture in conceptualization and measurement. ANS Adv Nurs Sci 29:69-81
Baldwin, Ann L; Schwartz, Gary E (2006) Personal interaction with a Reiki practitioner decreases noise-induced microvascular damage in an animal model. J Altern Complement Med 12:15-22
Brooks, Audrey J; Schwartz, Gary E; Reece, Katie et al. (2006) The effect of Johrei healing on substance abuse recovery: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 12:625-31
Rubik, Beverly; Brooks, Audrey J; Schwartz, Gary E (2006) In vitro effect of Reiki treatment on bacterial cultures: Role of experimental context and practitioner well-being. J Altern Complement Med 12:7-13
Schwartz, Gary E; Schloss, Ernest P (2006) World hypotheses and the evolution of integrative medicine: combining categorical diagnoses and cause-effect interventions with whole systems research and nonvisualizable (seemingly ""impossible"") healing. Explore (NY) 2:509-14
Burleson, Katharine O; Schwartz, Gary E (2005) Cardiac torsion and electromagnetic fields: the cardiac bioinformation hypothesis. Med Hypotheses 64:1109-16
Creath, Katherine; Schwartz, Gary E (2005) The dynamics of life: imaging changing patterns of air surrounding material and biological systems with dynamic interferometry. J Altern Complement Med 11:233-5

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