This project brings together experts in urology and neurobiology to study the control of bladder functions by the brainstem. For successful completion of the scientific goals we will provide full administrative and clerical support. Since the methods employed are state of the art techniques we will establish and maintain a website that will highlight the research work and the progress of the project. We will ensure that we are in compliance with regulation and guidelines of all the institutions participating in this project. As part of educational enrichment program we strive to recruit summer students or medical student who can participate in research work and also learn about urology and specifically control of bladder function. In addition we will invite outside experts and local experts outside of field of urology for a lecture series. The administrative core will be responsible for overseeing the financial aspects and allocation of resources. We will ensure compliance with animal studies guidelines on animal use of all centers.