Both animal and in vitro studies support an association of low level arsenic exposure with impaired immune function as reflected in suppression of innate immunity and increased pathogen load. The few epidemiologic studies of this association are primarily from heavily exposed populations -and often involve small sample sizes or rely on ecologic exposure measures, and may not be generalizable to other regions of the world. Arsenic exposure in these heavily exposed populations has been variously associated with an increased risk of respiratory infection, bronchiectasis, and parasitic infection as well as with changed markers of immune function including, e.g., cytokine levels (IL-7, IL-2) and T-cell (CD4/CD8) ratios. The overall goal of this study is to assess the relationship of environmentally relevant levels of arsenic with maternal and infant immune function among 1,000 women and infants enrolled in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study of reproductive toxicities of arsenic. This ongoing longitudinal study is being conducted among mother-infant pairs who are residents of New Hampshire and obtain household water from wells which are a potential source of arsenic exposure. Specifically, we will expand this ongoing study to test the following new hypotheses: (1) prenatal and early life arsenic exposure (via water, food) is associated with an increased risk of infection during the 1st year of life; (2) arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of infection during pregnancy. Secondarily, we will assess the relation of pre- and post-natal arsenic exposure with vaccine response at age one year (antibody titers to tetanus and diphtheria) and whether individual variation in arsenic metabolism (maternal urinary metabolite profiles and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes) and other factors (e.g., smoking, folate intake) modify the effects of arsenic on infant or maternal infection. Altered immune function, particularly in pregnancy and early childhood, can have a profound impact on both perinatal and subsequent health. To the best of our knowledge, studying immune effects of arsenic in a U.S. population of mothers and infants with both individual biomarkers of exposure and measures related to likely susceptibility, has not been done previously.
Low level and moderate exposure to As is ubiquitous;characterizing important health risks from such common exposures in a vulnerable time of life (pregnancy and infancy) is critical to strategizing future, public health interventions for both exposure prevention and infectious disease risk reduction.
|Demidenko, Eugene (2017) Exact and Approximate Statistical Inference for Nonlinear Regression and the Estimating Equation Approach. Scand Stat Theory Appl 44:636-665|
|Demidenko, Eugene; Glaholt, S P; Kyker-Snowman, E et al. (2017) Single toxin dose-response models revisited. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 314:12-23|
|Patel, Chirag J; Kerr, Jacqueline; Thomas, Duncan C et al. (2017) Opportunities and Challenges for Environmental Exposure Assessment in Population-Based Studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 26:1370-1380|
|Lee, Jai Woo; Punshon, Tracy; Moen, Erika L et al. (2017) Penalized estimation of sparse concentration matrices based on prior knowledge with applications to placenta elemental data. Comput Biol Chem 71:219-223|
|Madan, Juliette C; Hoen, Anne G; Lundgren, Sara N et al. (2016) Association of Cesarean Delivery and Formula Supplementation With the Intestinal Microbiome of 6-Week-Old Infants. JAMA Pediatr 170:212-9|
|Carignan, Courtney C; Punshon, Tracy; Karagas, Margaret R et al. (2016) Potential Exposure to Arsenic from Infant Rice Cereal. Ann Glob Health 82:221-4|
|Punshon, Tracy; Li, Zhigang; Marsit, Carmen J et al. (2016) Placental Metal Concentrations in Relation to Maternal and Infant Toenails in a U.S. Cohort. Environ Sci Technol 50:1587-94|
|Carignan, Courtney C; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy et al. (2016) Contribution of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during the first year of life in a US prospective cohort. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 26:452-7|
|Chernikova, Diana A; Koestler, Devin C; Hoen, Anne Gatewood et al. (2016) Fetal exposures and perinatal influences on the stool microbiota of premature infants. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 29:99-105|
|Farzan, Shohreh F; Li, Zhigang; Korrick, Susan A et al. (2016) Infant Infections and Respiratory Symptoms in Relation to in Utero Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:840-7|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 43 publications