Most real world visual scenes are complex and crowded. Instead of a single isolated object, multiple objects compete for attention and directed action. Thus, any purposeful action requires the selection of a single goal from multiple possibilities. In daily life, the ability to orient attention, select an appropriate target, and direct various types of visually-guided actions towards the selected target is normally taken for granted. Its importance only becomes apparent once the system fails. This project aims to determine how multiple systems are integrated to select a target from among many possibilities within complex visual scenes and select an appropriate action in response. The proposed research will examine whether brain motor areas that independently generate saccadic eye movements and reaching movements also participate in target selection for the respective motor responses (effector-specific target selection). The project will also assess whether saccade-related brain regions are involved in more abstract, general-purpose target selection for other actions besides saccades, such as reaching (effector-general target selection). Finally, the proposed research will investigate whether mechanisms for effector-general target selection encode the history of target selection for both saccades and reaching movements across trials.

Public Health Relevance

By gaining an understanding of the basic neural mechanisms that control attention allocation and target selection, this proposed research may provide new insights into approaches needed to treat dysfunctions of attention and visually-guided action systems that occur in many brain disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, optic ataxia, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Type
Exploratory Grants (P20)
Project #
5P20GM103645-02
Application #
8721450
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZGM1-TWD-B)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
2014-08-01
Budget End
2015-07-31
Support Year
2
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$282,092
Indirect Cost
$106,243
Name
Brown University
Department
Type
DUNS #
001785542
City
Providence
State
RI
Country
United States
Zip Code
02912
Song, Joo-Hyun; B├ędard, Patrick (2015) Paradoxical benefits of dual-task contexts for visuomotor memory. Psychol Sci 26:148-58
Moher, Jeff; Sit, Jonathan; Song, Joo-Hyun (2015) Goal-directed action is automatically biased towards looming motion. Vision Res 113:188-97
Aguiar, Derek; Wong, Wendy S W; Istrail, Sorin (2014) Tumor haplotype assembly algorithms for cancer genomics. Pac Symp Biocomput :3-14
Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Markant, Julie (2014) An eye tracking investigation of developmental change in bottom-up attention orienting to faces in cluttered natural scenes. PLoS One 9:e85701
Pescosolido, Matthew F; Stein, David M; Schmidt, Michael et al. (2014) Genetic and phenotypic diversity of NHE6 mutations in Christianson syndrome. Ann Neurol 76:581-93
Schlesinger, Matthew; Johnson, Scott P; Amso, Dima (2014) Prediction-learning in infants as a mechanism for gaze control during object exploration. Front Psychol 5:441
Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun (2014) Perceptual decision processes flexibly adapt to avoid change-of-mind motor costs. J Vis 14:1
Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena et al. (2014) Bottom-up attention orienting in young children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 44:664-73
Corbett, Jennifer E; Song, Joo-Hyun (2014) Statistical extraction affects visually guided action. Vis cogn 22:881-895
McLean, Rebecca L; Johnson Harrison, Ashley; Zimak, Eric et al. (2014) Executive function in probands with autism with average IQ and their unaffected first-degree relatives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 53:1001-9

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