The ability to recover from a stroke depends upon a balanced response ofthe immune system. In some cases, the immune system is unable to respond and negatively affects patient outcome. A simple and reliable biomarker to monitor the immune response to stroke is the ratio between the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes (NLR). This ratio is a prognostic biomarker for several cardiovascular risk factors and we have preliminary data suggesting high NLR can predict death and functional dependence following stroke. However, the mechanisms unifying the NLR with dysfunctional immune crosstalk following ischemic stroke are unknown. Neutrophils release Arginase 1 (ARGI) resulting in L-Arginine depletion and a dosedependent decrease in T lymphocyte proliferation. It is likely CVD severity contributes to dysregulated Immune crosstalk following ischemic stroke. The objective of this project is to explore the relationships beh/i/een CVD and ARGI with the NLR to discover the mechanisms behind dysregulated adaptive immune responses to inflammatory signals following ischemic stroke.We hypothesize that neutrophil mediated ARGI release contributes to T lymphocyte suppression following stroke, mediated by pre-morbld CVD.
Aims : 1. Determine the relationship between ARGI, the NLR and CVD severity in human ischemic stroke. 2. Determine the relationship between ARG1 and the NLR in obese and lean zucker rats (OZR &LZR) undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). 3. Identify the functional relationship between neutrophil mediated ARGI T cell suppression in stroke. 4. Develop and implement a mentor training plan for Dr. Barr to acquire the experimental skills to address the specific needs of aim 2 and 3.
The aims i n this study are designed to uncover the variability in post-stroke immune suppression. This would aid in personalized secondary risk stratification (e.g. infection, cerebral edema, poor recovery) and treatment allocation following stroke. An additional expected outcome of this study is the identification of novel therapeutic targets for stroke treatment. Information obtained in this study can be used in the clinical setting to monitor risk for secondary stroke complications and stratlfiy treatment to those who are most likely to beneft.

Public Health Relevance

Understanding the role of the immune in the contribution of cardiovascular disease in stroke as well as the mechanism by which immune dysfunction worsens stroke outcome is critical to the effective treatment of and recovery from stroke. The propose project would adress these important issues.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Exploratory Grants (P20)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZGM1-TWD-C (C1))
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
West Virginia University
United States
Zip Code
Sun, Jiahong; Ren, Xuefang; Qi, Wen et al. (2016) Geissoschizine methyl ether protects oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in neurons through the 'Neuronal Warburg Effect'. J Ethnopharmacol 187:249-58
Engler-Chiurazzi, E B; Singh, M; Simpkins, J W (2016) From the 90's to now: A brief historical perspective on more than two decades of estrogen neuroprotection. Brain Res 1633:96-100
Engler-Chiurazzi, E B; Brown, C M; Povroznik, J M et al. (2016) Estrogens as neuroprotectants: Estrogenic actions in the context of cognitive aging and brain injury. Prog Neurobiol :
Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Covey, Douglas F; Simpkins, James W (2016) A novel mechanism of non-feminizing estrogens in neuroprotection. Exp Gerontol :
Petrone, Ashley B; O'Connell, Grant C; Regier, Michael D et al. (2016) The Role of Arginase 1 in Post-Stroke Immunosuppression and Ischemic Stroke Severity. Transl Stroke Res 7:103-10
Sarkar, S; Jun, S; Rellick, S et al. (2016) Expression of microRNA-34a in Alzheimer's disease brain targets genes linked to synaptic plasticity, energy metabolism, and resting state network activity. Brain Res 1646:139-51
Hu, Heng; Doll, Danielle N; Sun, Jiahong et al. (2016) Mitochondrial Impairment in Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells is Involved in the Correlation between Body Temperature and Stroke Severity. Aging Dis 7:14-27
Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J et al. (2016) Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition. J Toxicol Environ Health A 79:447-52
Sun, Jiahong; Hu, Heng; Ren, Xuefang et al. (2016) Tert-butylhydroquinone compromises survival in murine experimental stroke. Neurotoxicol Teratol 54:15-21
DeVallance, E; Fournier, S; Lemaster, K et al. (2016) The effects of resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:899-910

Showing the most recent 10 out of 31 publications