To American Indians, resilience as a response to trauma is not new. They have survived forced removal from homelands, genocide, the imposition of a reservation system, mandated boarding schools, forced adoption programs, and discriminatory practices against their cultural traditions, religions, and languages. Such prolonged exposure to negative factors has resulted in a long-term cycle of historical trauma. Brave Heart (1999) describes historical trauma response as
Resilience has become an important concept in human development and mental health research and practice over the past two decades. In the proposed project, the experiences of individuals who display resilient adaptations will be used to identify protective factors i.e., assets such as coping skills and resources such as social support networks, and those factors can be later incorporated in the development of culturally appropriate health promotion programs that foster resilience.