This is a proposal to renew a P41 Research Resource grant that supports the Boulder Laboratory for 3-D Electron Microscopy of Cells and Macromolecular Structures. Our goals for research in technology (R&D) include the development of methods for reliable specimen preparation, image acquisition, and image processing. In addition, we provide service, training and dissemination of software and technology to the scientific community. Our methods comprise 3-D electron microscopy aimed to resolve the structure and function of cellular organelles and macromolecular assemblies. Our facility is unique in a sense that we are working on the interface between most advanced cryo-technologies applied to frozen-hydrated specimens revealing best possible molecular resolution in 3-D, and large-scale 3-D imaging typically provided by freeze-substitution and plastic embedding of cells and tissue. This way we provide a direct link between cellular structures and macromolecular detail and atomic-scale interpretation. Freeze-substitution and plastic embedding are excellent method for high-throughput 3-D imaging of large complex systems and entire cells to a resolution of approx. 4-5 nm. This is sufficient to unambiguously detect cellular structures such as microtubules, actin filaments, mitochondria, ER systems, and even macromolecular structures such as ribosomes or other large enzyme complexes. Tomographic 3-D imaging on frozen-hydrated specimens aims for most accurate molecular detail down to 2nm resolution or even beyond. That, however, requires focusing on much smaller volumes. In this renewal we propose a series of new methods that should improve our interpretations of frozen-hydrated specimens by employing novel high-electron dense labeling techniques, specifically designed for vitrified macromolecular and cellular samples, and correlative approaches combining fluorescence light microscopy with 3-D electron microscopy. We propose new computational procedures in our software packages such as volume-averaging of 3-D data picked from tomograms and a variety of processes that will improve the resolution of tomographic 3-D reconstructions, both, during data acquisition on the microscope, and for the alignment and image correction procedures.

Public Health Relevance

Curing a pathologic condition requires detailed molecular knowledge of the healthy state, which is a major goal of pre-clinical biomedical research like the work of our lab. Nevertheless, several of our collaborations are directly relevant to an understanding of pathologic processes in humans, such as our large-scale structural analyses of cardiomyocytes and of virus entry and replication. The data we will obtain will constitute an essential scientific basis that will in turn lead to new cures and treatments of many diseases.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Biotechnology Resource Grants (P41)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-CB-J (40))
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Swain, Amy L
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University of Colorado at Boulder
Schools of Arts and Sciences
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O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings Jr, Thomas H; Winey, Mark (2017) Building Cell Structures in Three Dimensions: Electron Tomography Methods for Budding Yeast. Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2017:
Burton, Rebecca A B; Rog-Zielinska, Eva A; Corbett, Alexander D et al. (2017) Caveolae in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes: Distribution and Dynamic Diminution after Cell Isolation. Biophys J 113:1047-1059
O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings Jr, Thomas H; Winey, Mark (2017) Cryopreparation and Electron Tomography of Yeast Cells. Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2017:
Aston, Daniel; Capel, Rebecca A; Ford, Kerrie L et al. (2017) High resolution structural evidence suggests the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum forms microdomains with Acidic Stores (lysosomes) in the heart. Sci Rep 7:40620
Mastronarde, David N; Held, Susannah R (2017) Automated tilt series alignment and tomographic reconstruction in IMOD. J Struct Biol 197:102-113
Quinn, T Alexander; Camelliti, Patrizia; Rog-Zielinska, Eva A et al. (2016) Electrotonic coupling of excitable and nonexcitable cells in the heart revealed by optogenetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:14852-14857
Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T (2016) The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cilia 5:18
Brown, Joanna R; Schwartz, Cindi L; Heumann, John M et al. (2016) A detailed look at the cytoskeletal architecture of the Giardia lamblia ventral disc. J Struct Biol 194:38-48
Rao, Anand N; Falnikar, Aditi; O'Toole, Eileen T et al. (2016) Sliding of centrosome-unattached microtubules defines key features of neuronal phenotype. J Cell Biol 213:329-41
Fees, Colby P; Aiken, Jayne; O'Toole, Eileen T et al. (2016) The negatively charged carboxy-terminal tail of ?-tubulin promotes proper chromosome segregation. Mol Biol Cell 27:1786-96

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