This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. Primary support for the subproject and the subproject's principal investigator may have been provided by other sources, including other NIH sources. The Total Cost listed for the subproject likely represents the estimated amount of Center infrastructure utilized by the subproject, not direct funding provided by the NCRR grant to the subproject or subproject staff. Zambian children 6 months to 5 years of age are currently scheduled to receive high-dose vitamin A supplements (100,000 IU (30 mg) for infants 6 mo-12 mo of age or 200,000 IU (60 mg) for children >/= to13 mo-60 mo of age), approximately once every 4-6 months to improve their vitamin A status and lower their risk of diseases associated with vitamin A deficiency. However, recent data indicate that administration of high-dose capsules has little impact on serum retinol concentrations in this population. The proportion of children with low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) remains high (~55%), indicating a persistent public health problem of vitamin A deficiency. Possible explanations for this apparent lack of effect of the supplementation program are 1) the high-dose supplement is not well-absorbed, 2) the high-dose supplement is rapidly excreted (poorly retained) after absorption, 3) the daily vitamin A utilization rate is high, or 4) the high-dose supplement is absorbed and retained in the liver, but is not mobilized for use by extra-hepatic tissue. To investigate these possibilities, we conducted a study to: 1) estimate absorption and retention of the high dose vitamin A supplement in 3-4 year-old Zambian children, 2) estimate the daily vitamin A utilization rate, and 3) estimate total body vitamin A pool size before, and 30-d after administration of the high-dose vitamin A supplement to assess whether the supplemental vitamin A has a sustained impact on total body vitamin A reserves. Because infection may have an adverse effect on absorption, retention and/or utilization of vitamin A, and because dietary vitamin A intake affects vitamin A pool size, we also collected information on morbidity and frequency of intake of vitamin A-containing foods during the study period. To estimate absorption and retention of vitamin A from the high-dose supplement, and the daily vitamin A utilization rate, we co-administered a tracer dose of 14C-labeled vitamin A (25 nCi) with the high-dose vitamin A supplement (60 mg) and collected 24-hr stool and urine samples for 3 and 7 days, respectively, for measurement of the 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is an extremely sensitive analytical method that detects attomolar (10 ?18) levels of 14C from labeled substrates in biological samples. Because of the high sensitivity of the analytical method, it is possible to administer tracer doses (low nanoCuries (nCi) quantities) of 14C labeled substrates safely to healthy humans. There are no other existing techniques for estimating vitamin A absorption and retention in humans. Thereafter, 24-hr urine samples were collected at four additional time points approximately 7-12 days apart. The amount of 14C recovered in stool and urine will be used to estimate how much of the supplemental dose of vitamin A is absorbed and retained;and the longer-term urinary excretion rate of 14C will provide an estimate of the daily utilization rate of vitamin A (system fractional catabolic rate).

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Biotechnology Resource Grants (P41)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-BCMB-K (40))
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Organized Research Units
United States
Zip Code
Wang, Sisi; Zhang, Hongyong; Scharadin, Tiffany M et al. (2016) Molecular Dissection of Induced Platinum Resistance through Functional and Gene Expression Analysis in a Cell Culture Model of Bladder Cancer. PLoS One 11:e0146256
Kim, Jeffrey; Stewart, Benjamin; Weiss, Robert H (2016) Extraction and Quantification of Tryptophan and Kynurenine from Cultured Cells and Media Using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System Equipped with an Ultra-Sensitive Diode Array Detector. Bio Protoc 6:
Pan, Amy; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Yuanpei et al. (2016) Disulfide-crosslinked nanomicelles confer cancer-specific drug delivery and improve efficacy of paclitaxel in bladder cancer. Nanotechnology 27:425103
McCartt, A D; Ognibene, T; Bench, G et al. (2015) Measurements of Carbon-14 With Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 361:277-280
Cai, Hong; Scott, Edwina; Kholghi, Abeer et al. (2015) Cancer chemoprevention: Evidence of a nonlinear dose response for the protective effects of resveratrol in humans and mice. Sci Transl Med 7:298ra117
Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc et al. (2015) Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice. Nanomedicine (Lond) 10:1189-201
Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Yuanpei; Lin, Tzu-Yin et al. (2014) Nanomicelle formulation modifies the pharmacokinetic profiles and cardiac toxicity of daunorubicin. Nanomedicine (Lond) 9:1807-20
Dingley, Karen H; Ubick, Esther A; Vogel, John S et al. (2014) DNA isolation and sample preparation for quantification of adduct levels by accelerator mass spectrometry. Methods Mol Biol 1105:147-57
McCartt, A D; Ognibene, T J; Bench, G et al. (2014) Model-Based, Closed-Loop Control of PZT Creep for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. Meas Sci Technol 25:
Alkass, Kanar; Saitoh, Hisako; Buchholz, Bruce A et al. (2013) Analysis of radiocarbon, stable isotopes and DNA in teeth to facilitate identification of unknown decedents. PLoS One 8:e69597

Showing the most recent 10 out of 119 publications