This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. Primary support for the subproject and the subproject's principal investigator may have been provided by other sources, including other NIH sources. The Total Cost listed for the subproject likely represents the estimated amount of Center infrastructure utilized by the subproject, not direct funding provided by the NCRR grant to the subproject or subproject staff. Methods: Protein rich powder was prepared from each type of kidneys as described in previous reports. O-glycans were released from protein rich powder by a chemical reaction, which is called ?-elimination, followed by desalting, borate removal and cleaning up by C18 sep-pak. The released O-glycans were then permethylated and profiled by mass spectrometry. The detailed procedures are shown below. Preparation of protein rich powder from kidneys Kidneys (3 set of kidneys per a sample) were homogenized and de-lipidated followed by the method of (2007). Briefly, kidneys were homogenized by homogenizer on ice. Lipids were extracted by adjusting the solvent mixture to give a final ratio of chloroform/methanol/water equal to 4:8:3. The extract was incubated at room temperature with end-over-end agitation. The insoluble proteinaceous material was collected by centrifugation and re-extracted three times. The final pellet of insoluble protein was further washed with cold-acetone/water (4:1, v/v) four times and dried under a stream of nitrogen. O-linked glycan preparation O-linked carbohydrate fractions were cleaved from protein rich powder by ?-elimination procedures. Briefly, 1 M sodiumborohydride in 50 mM Sodiumhydroxide (NaOH) were added to the samples and incubated overnight at 45oC. The incubated samples were neutralized with 10% acetic acid and desalted by passing through a packed column of DowexTM resins (50 W x 8--100, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and lyophilized. The borate was removed with methanol/acetic acid (9:1) under a stream of nitrogen gas, and the samples were passed through a C18 reversed phase cartridge. The carbohydrate fractions (O-linked glycans) were eluted with 5% acetic acid. The carbohydrate fractions were dried by lyophilization and then permethylated based on the method of Anumula and Taylor (Anumula and Taylor, 1992) and profiled by mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry MALDI/TOF-MS was performed in the reflector positive ion mode using ?-dihyroxybenzoic acid (DHBA, 20mg/mL solution in 50%methanol:water) as a matrix. The spectrum was obtained by using a Microflex LRF (Bruker). NSI-MSn analysis was determined by using on a LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer (ThermoFisher) equipped with a nanospray ion source. Permethylated glycans from each sample were dissolved in the same amount of 1mM NaOH in 50% methanol and infused directly into the instrument at a constant flow rate of 0.5 ?L/ min. A full FTMS spectrum was collected at 30 000 resolution with 3 microscans. The peak intensities of each O-glycan components were obtained by averaging the 30 full FTMS scans for each sample. The capillary temperature was set at 210oC and MS analysis was performed in the positive ion mode. For total ion mapping (automated MS/MS analysis), m/z range, 300 to 2000 was scanned with ITMS mode in successive 2.8 mass unit windows that overlapped the preceding window by 2 mass units

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Biotechnology Resource Grants (P41)
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