PROJECT 3: KOO/ROY - ABSTRACT The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is sequentially cleaved by ?- and ?-secretases to generate amyloid ?-peptide (A?) in the brain - a central player in the amyloid cascade hypothesis. APP cleavage by ?-secretase-1 (BACE-1) is the rate-limiting step for production of A?. A? is believed to exert its toxicity on neurons while in a soluble and oligomeric state, prior to deposition as insoluble fibrils in brain. Thus, for reasons related to both pathophysiology and therapeutics, understanding mechanisms and pathways of A? generation from APP is a major focus of many laboratories. An intriguing aspect of A? production is that its release is dependent upon neuronal activity - enhanced synaptic activity results in more A? release. Though pathways involved in trafficking and cleavage of APP in neurons are of obvious importance, the vast majority of previous studies on APP/BACE-1 trafficking have been carried out in non-neuronal cells. These findings may not always be applicable to neurons, which are highly polarized and are known to have very different trafficking mechanisms. Furthermore, inferences on how neuronal activity modulates APP processing by BACE-1 require work in neurons. The prevailing view is that at presynaptic terminals, heightened synaptic vesicle recycling that accompanies high synaptic activity results in increased internalization into endosomes of APP where proteolysis by secretases take place. However, our recent studies using live neuronal imaging showed rather surprising results in that APP and BACE-1 normally traffic in distinct vesicles - perhaps preventing unabated cleavage - but converge in dendrites upon activity-induction. This led us to propose a new model whereby neuronal activity brings together APP and BACE-1 in dendrites where the two molecules interact. Only subsequently are these two molecules sorted into axons to distal terminals. Accordingly, this Project will examine a number of predictions that emanate from this working model and will allow us to refine the trafficking pathways of APP and BACE-1 and define how they relate to amyloidogenesis in neurons in an activity-dependent manner.
Four Aims are proposed: 1) test the hypothesis that APP and BACE-1 are first sorted to dendrites immediately after biosynthesis, 2) determine the subcellular sites where APP and BACE-1 interact and correlate this to sites of A? release, 3) test the hypothesis that APP and BACE-1 are transcytosed from dendrites to axons, possibly in an activity dependent manner, and 4) utilize tissue from the Neuro-pathology Core to assess whether the colocalization of APP and BACE-1 is preferential to the """"""""default mode network"""""""" brain regions which are known to be sites of A? deposits. Collectively, results from these studies will provide new insights into the trafficking pathways of APP and BACE-1 and demonstrate how neuronal activity modulates these pathways to enhance APP cleavage and A? release.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Specialized Center (P50)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAG1-ZIJ-4 (J1))
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of California San Diego
La Jolla
United States
Zip Code
Li, Ge; Shofer, Jane B; Petrie, Eric C et al. (2017) Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's and vascular disease vary by age, gender, and APOE genotype in cognitively normal adults. Alzheimers Res Ther 9:48
Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Muniz, Martha; Galasko, Douglas et al. (2017) Subjective Cognitive Decline Correlates With Depression Symptoms and Not With Concurrent Objective Cognition in a Clinic-Based Sample of Older Adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci :
Katsumata, Yuriko; Nelson, Peter T; Ellingson, Sally R et al. (2017) Gene-based association study of genes linked to hippocampal sclerosis of aging neuropathology: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2. Neurobiol Aging 53:193.e17-193.e25
Huang, Timothy Y; Zhao, Yingjun; Jiang, Lu-Lin et al. (2017) SORLA attenuates EphA4 signaling and amyloid ?-induced neurodegeneration. J Exp Med 214:3669-3685
Granholm, Eric L; Panizzon, Matthew S; Elman, Jeremy A et al. (2017) Pupillary Responses as a Biomarker of Early Risk for Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis 56:1419-1428
Cronin, Peter; McCarthy, Michael J; Lim, Andrew S P et al. (2017) Circadian alterations during early stages of Alzheimer's disease are associated with aberrant cycles of DNA methylation in BMAL1. Alzheimers Dement 13:689-700
Sano, Mary; Zhu, Carolyn W; Grossman, Hillel et al. (2017) Longitudinal Cognitive Profiles in Diabetes: Results From the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data. J Am Geriatr Soc 65:2198-2204
Galasko, Douglas R; Shaw, Leslie M (2017) Alzheimer disease: CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer disease - approaching consensus. Nat Rev Neurol 13:131-132
Jacobs, Diane M; Ard, M Colin; Salmon, David P et al. (2017) Potential implications of practice effects in Alzheimer's disease prevention trials. Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 3:531-535
Tripodis, Yorghos; Alosco, Michael L; Zirogiannis, Nikolaos et al. (2017) The Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury History with Loss of Consciousness on Rate of Cognitive Decline Among Older Adults with Normal Cognition and Alzheimer's Disease Dementia. J Alzheimers Dis 59:251-263

Showing the most recent 10 out of 854 publications