Project 2: Astrocyte-related molecular mechanisms underlying altered neuronal plasticity in Down syndrome The goal of this project is to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with abnormal astrocyte function and their role in altered structural and functional plasticity in the Down's syndrome (DS) brain. Astrocytes are critical regulators of neuronal stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation as well as dendritic spine development and synaptogenesis. We found metabolic deficits in DS astrocytes directly associated with reduced NSCs viability and aberrant spine formation. To investigate the molecular pathways associated with abnormal astrocyte function and its role in DS altered structural and functional neuroplasticity we propose: 1. To identify the molecular alterations in OS astrocytes responsible for impaired NSCs neurogenesis and spine pathology. We will define the role of intracellular AU and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocyte secretory deficits, and the role of reduced APPs and thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) secretion in NSCs and spine pathology. 2. To analyze the effectiveness of mitochondrial cofactors and B-secretase inhibitors to prevent or revert DS astrocyte secretory deficits and concomitant NSCs and spine alterations. 3. A) To study the relation between astrocyte alterations, neurogenesis and spine anomalies in DS brains. We will generate normative data on the association between astrocyte alterations and NSCs and spine deficits in DS individuals. B) To assess the usefulness of TSP-1 levels in CSF and plasma as a biomarker of AD. We propose to perform preliminary studies to evaluate the usefulness of TSP-1 levels in plasma and CSF as a biomarker of AD in sporadic AD and DS+AD patients. We will take advantage of our extensive experience culturing primary human nerve cells derived from fetal brain tissue. NSCs cultures in the form of neurospheres, pure astrocyte cultures, and cocultures of rat hippocampal neurons growing on top of human astrocytes (normal and DS) will be utilized for aims 1 and 2.
Aim 3 will utilize post-mortem brain samples and CSF and plasma samples provided by the Neuropathology Core. The Statistical Core will provide feedback in all statistical procedures.
These experiments will gather a wealth of information on novel aspects of DS structural and functional plasticity, which may be closely associated with the early and rapid transition to AD that occurs in most individuals with DS. We expect to identify novel therapeutic targets to treat neurodegeneration and cognitive decline not only in older DS individuals but also in the larger population affected by sporadic AD.
|Kirson, Noam Y; Scott Andrews, J; Desai, Urvi et al. (2018) Patient Characteristics and Outcomes Associated with Receiving an Earlier Versus Later Diagnosis of Probable Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis 61:295-307|
|Kamara, Dennis M; Gangishetti, Umesh; Gearing, Marla et al. (2018) Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: Similarity in African-Americans and Caucasians with Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis 62:1815-1826|
|Stark, Shauna M; Reagh, Zachariah M; Yassa, Michael A et al. (2018) What's in a context? Cautions, limitations, and potential paths forward. Neurosci Lett 680:77-87|
|Leal, Stephanie L; Yassa, Michael A (2018) Integrating new findings and examining clinical applications of pattern separation. Nat Neurosci 21:163-173|
|Weintraub, Sandra; Besser, Lilah; Dodge, Hiroko H et al. (2018) Version 3 of the Alzheimer Disease Centers' Neuropsychological Test Battery in the Uniform Data Set (UDS). Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 32:10-17|
|Kaur, Antarpreet; Edland, Steven D; Peavy, Guerry M (2018) The MoCA-Memory Index Score: An Efficient Alternative to Paragraph Recall for the Detection of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 32:120-124|
|Wilmoth, Kristin; LoBue, Christian; Clem, Matthew A et al. (2018) Consistency of traumatic brain injury reporting in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Clin Neuropsychol 32:524-529|
|Brenowitz, Willa D; Han, Fang; Kukull, Walter A et al. (2018) Treated hypothyroidism is associated with cerebrovascular disease but not Alzheimer's disease pathology in older adults. Neurobiol Aging 62:64-71|
|Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Foo, Heidi; Chia, Pei Shi et al. (2018) Dyslexic Characteristics of Chinese-Speaking Semantic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 30:31-37|
|Gallagher, Damien; Kiss, Alex; Lanctot, Krista L et al. (2018) Toward Prevention of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults With Depression: An Observational Study of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors. J Clin Psychiatry 80:|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 518 publications