description) This project uses fMRI imaging and instructional interventions to validate two major subtypes of children with language-based reading disabilities (RD); those with primarily phonology (P) related deficits, and those with combined phonology and rate (P/R) deficits (or Double-Deficits). P-children are expected to show a diminished response in dorsal and ventral circuits and increased response in anterior brain regions. P/R-children are expected to show decreased responses in all three putative left hemisphere reading circuits. It will also evaluate the differential effectiveness of two theoretically-motivated and proven treatment programs (PHAST, PHAST + RAVEO) in these subtypes, compare results to a curriculum control group of RD children, and use repeated fMRIs as a neurobiological index of treatment mediated changes related to reading. Poor readers who are increasing their skills are expected to show relative consolidation and normalization of brain activation in ancillary left and right frontal and right hemispheric posterior sites. The investigators also expect that their intervention program that focuses more explicitly on semantic development, naming speed, orthography, fluency and automaticity in reading, as well as on the phonological core deficits, will have a greater impact on reading outcomes in the P/R subgroup than their program that focuses primarily at the phonological and metacognitive levels, which is predicted to perform well in the P subgroup. Both treatment intervention programs employ similar format, taught by trained research teachers hired for the project, and are independently monitored for treatment integrity. Each intervention program will provide 140 hours of instruction in small groups of 4 children taught by one teacher. Thirty-six (36) 3rd grade children, comprised of eighteen (18) P and eighteen (18) P/R subtyped children, will be randomly assigned to each treatment program or to the control group, resulting in a total sample of 108 children. The experimental design allows a systematic comparison of the following treatment conditions: (1) PHAST and (2) PHAST + RAVEO and (3) the control condition, using cognitive, linguistic, academic, or neurobiological measures of outcome.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Specialized Center (P50)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZHD1)
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Yale University
New Haven
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Lebel, Catherine; Shaywitz, Bennett; Holahan, John et al. (2013) Diffusion tensor imaging correlates of reading ability in dysfluent and non-impaired readers. Brain Lang 125:215-22
Ferrer, Emilio; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Holahan, John M et al. (2010) Uncoupling of reading and IQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition of dyslexia. Psychol Sci 21:93-101
Shaywitz, Sally E; Shaywitz, Bennett A (2008) Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Dev Psychopathol 20:1329-49
Shaywitz, Sally E; Morris, Robin; Shaywitz, Bennett A (2008) The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Annu Rev Psychol 59:451-75
Noble, Kimberly G; McCandliss, Bruce D; Farah, Martha J (2007) Socioeconomic gradients predict individual differences in neurocognitive abilities. Dev Sci 10:464-80
Shaywitz, Sally E; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Shaywitz, Bennett A (2007) Management of dyslexia, its rationale, and underlying neurobiology. Pediatr Clin North Am 54:609-23, viii
Shaywitz, Bennett A; Skudlarski, Pawel; Holahan, John M et al. (2007) Age-related changes in reading systems of dyslexic children. Ann Neurol 61:363-70
Burgio-Murphy, Andrea; Klorman, Rafael; Shaywitz, Sally E et al. (2007) Error-related event-related potentials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, reading disorder, and math disorder. Biol Psychol 75:75-86
Noble, Kimberly G; Wolmetz, Michael E; Ochs, Lisa G et al. (2006) Brain-behavior relationships in reading acquisition are modulated by socioeconomic factors. Dev Sci 9:642-54
Shaywitz, Bennett A; Lyon, G Reid; Shaywitz, Sally E (2006) The role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in understanding reading and dyslexia. Dev Neuropsychol 30:613-32

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