Definition and classification are critical features of scientific research and many areas of practice regardless of whether the phenomena in question are genuinely categorical or continuous. An agreed upon definition of learning disability serves as an essential foundation for research. Without an agreed upon definition that can be implemented reliably and validly, understanding the nature, causes, and best treatments for learning disabilities is unlikely. Although we have not yet achieved a reliable and valid definition and system of classification for learning disabilities, doing so now represents an attainable scientific objective because we now understand the fundamental problem that has prevented development of a reliable and valid definition and classification system, and this understanding points the way to a potential solution in the form of a model that incorporates multiple sources of information in a theoretically grounded way. This project has three specific aims. The first is to further develop and test a constellation model of word-level developmental reading disability. This will be done through simulation, modeling of empirical relations among measures in the large-scale Florida PMRN database, and an empirical study of students with word-level reading disability.
The second aim i s to begin the process of extending the model to other potential learning disabilities in reading and writing. Doing so requires better understanding of the simultaneous development of oral language, reading, and writing skills, and this will be accomplished using a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.
The third aim i s to identify potential subtypes of reading and writing disabilities. When theoretically-motivated potential subtypes have been subject to rigorous empirical test, important knowledge has emerged such as support for a phonological form of developmental reading disability as a developmental difference but not for a surface form. Identifying potential subtypes of reading and writing disabilities will be accomplished by testing a priori proposed subtypes using a latent-variable regression-based approach applied to both reading and writing data collected in the previously mentioned empirical studies.

Public Health Relevance

The proposed studies have the potential to provide a reliable and valid definition and system of classification for learning disabilities. Accomplishing this objective has the potential to accelerate our understanding of the nature of learning disabilities and to develop more effective means of prevention, early identification, and intervention.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Type
Specialized Center (P50)
Project #
5P50HD052120-07
Application #
8386561
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZHD1-DSR-H)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
2013-01-01
Budget End
2013-12-31
Support Year
7
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$341,327
Indirect Cost
$109,089
Name
Florida State University
Department
Type
DUNS #
790877419
City
Tallahassee
State
FL
Country
United States
Zip Code
32306
Sparapani, Nicole; Connor, Carol McDonald; McLean, Leigh et al. (2018) Direct and Reciprocal Effects among Social Skills, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in First Grade. Contemp Educ Psychol 53:159-167
Patael, Smadar Z; Farris, Emily A; Black, Jessica M et al. (2018) Brain basis of cognitive resilience: Prefrontal cortex predicts better reading comprehension in relation to decoding. PLoS One 13:e0198791
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph (2018) Does Online Comprehension Monitoring Make a Unique Contribution to Reading Comprehension in Beginning Readers? Evidence from Eye Movements. Sci Stud Read 22:367-383
McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald (2018) Relations between third grade teachers' depressive symptoms and their feedback to students, with implications for student mathematics achievement. Sch Psychol Q 33:272-282
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Gatlin, Brandy; Al Otaiba, Stephanie et al. (2018) Theorization and an Empirical Investigation of the Component-Based and Developmental Text Writing Fluency Construct. J Learn Disabil 51:320-335
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Petscher, Yaacov; Wanzek, Jeanne et al. (2018) Relations between Reading and Writing: A Longitudinal Examination from Grades 3 to 6. Read Writ 31:1591-1618
Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A; Wagner, Richard K et al. (2018) Examining the Etiology of Reading Disability as Conceptualized by the Hybrid Model. Sci Stud Read 22:167-180
Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A; Taylor, Jeanette (2018) Longitudinal Associations Among Reading-Related Skills and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study. Child Dev 89:e480-e493
Connor, Carol McDonald; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Kurz, Terri et al. (2018) Using assessment to individualize early mathematics instruction. J Sch Psychol 66:97-113
Spencer, Mercedes; Wagner, Richard K (2018) The Comprehension Problems of Children with Poor Reading Comprehension despite Adequate Decoding: A Meta-Analysis. Rev Educ Res 88:366-400

Showing the most recent 10 out of 240 publications