Urban residents with low incomes and of ethnic minority background are highly likely to experience significant chronic exposure to major life stressors and to traumatic stress.^^"^''Although research on health disparities has at times focused on major life stress, there has been relatively little focus on traumatic stress, and again, are much more likely than higher income and majority population members to be exposed to traumatic stressors.[24,25] Key to the association with health, both major life stressors and traumatic stressors are likely to increase lifetime depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms.[25,26] Further, major life and traumatic stressors may both indirectly affect physical health through their influence on behaviors, including drug and alcohol use, smoking, sleep disturbance, avoidance of exercise (for legitimate fear of places to exercise due to dangerous neighborhoods)[27-29], as well as directly affect physical health through their influence on down regulation of the immune system and inflammatory processes.[30-32] Both down regulation of.the immune system and inflammatory processes have been linked with cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and blood pressure.[30,33-38] These processes have only begun to be studied and have seldom been study in applied health contexts. Critically, they have not to our knowledge been studied uniformly across several health interventions in order to explore their impact. For the purposes of this grant it is helpful to define our key terms around stress: Major life stressors are objective events that threaten or produce profound negative adaptational consequences in most individuals or that threaten or produce profound losses of objects, situations or persons that are highly valued by most individuals.[39] These include, but are not limited to, loss of employment, loss of a loved one, major health problems, divorce or separation from a loved one, and severe economic problems. Traumatic stressors are shocking and emotionally ovenwhelming events that are typically experienced with intense fear, horror, numbness, or helplessness. These events usually involve actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual or other physical assault. They can be one-time occurrences, such as a natural disaster, rape, violent assault, or a motor vehicle accident, or be ongoing and chronic, such as the case of domestic violence or combat exposure.[40]

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Type
Specialized Center (P50)
Project #
5P50HL105189-04
Application #
8458608
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZCA1-SRLB-3)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
2013-04-01
Budget End
2014-03-31
Support Year
4
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$64,623
Indirect Cost
$21,586
Name
Rush University Medical Center
Department
Type
DUNS #
068610245
City
Chicago
State
IL
Country
United States
Zip Code
60612
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Taylor-Clift, April; Holmgreen, Lucie; Hobfoll, Stevan E et al. (2016) Traumatic stress and cardiopulmonary disease burden among low-income, urban heart failure patients. J Affect Disord 190:227-34
Doukky, Rami; Mangla, Ashvarya; Ibrahim, Zeina et al. (2016) Impact of Physical Inactivity on Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure. Am J Cardiol 117:1135-43
Taylor-Clift, April; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Gerhart, James I et al. (2016) Posttraumatic stress and depression: potential pathways to disease burden among heart failure patients. Anxiety Stress Coping 29:139-52
Smith, Caren E; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Dookeran, Keith A et al. (2016) Using Genetic Technologies To Reduce, Rather Than Widen, Health Disparities. Health Aff (Millwood) 35:1367-73
Mosnaim, Giselle S; Pappalardo, Andrea A; Resnick, Scott E et al. (2016) Behavioral Interventions to Improve Asthma Outcomes for Adolescents: A Systematic Review. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 4:130-41
Doukky, Rami; Avery, Elizabeth; Mangla, Ashvarya et al. (2016) Impact of Dietary Sodium Restriction on Heart Failure Outcomes. JACC Heart Fail 4:24-35
Golden, Sherita Hill; Ferketich, Amy; Boyington, Josephine et al. (2015) Transdisciplinary cardiovascular and cancer health disparities training: experiences of the centers for population health and health disparities. Am J Public Health 105 Suppl 3:S395-402
Hobfoll, Stevan E; Stevens, Natalie R; Zalta, Alyson K (2015) Expanding the Science of Resilience: Conserving Resources in the Aid of Adaptation. Psychol Inq 26:174-180

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