This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. Primary support for the subproject and the subproject's principal investigator may have been provided by other sources, including other NIH sources. The Total Cost listed for the subproject likely represents the estimated amount of Center infrastructure utilized by the subproject, not direct funding provided by the NCRR grant to the subproject or subproject staff. Fitness disadvantage of the transitional intermediates compared to the initial R5 viruses has been suggested to constitute one of the blockades to coreceptor switching, explaining the late appearance of X4 viruses. Using a simian model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor switching, we demonstrate in this study that similar molecular evolutionary pathways to coreceptor switch occur in more than one R5 simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)(SF162P3N)-infected macaque. In infected animals where multiple pathways for expansion or switch to CXCR4 coexist, fitness of the transitional intermediates in coreceptor usage efficiency influences their outgrowth and representation in the infecting virus population. Dualtropic and X4 viruses appear at different disease stages, but they have lower entry efficiency than the coexisting R5 strains, which may explain why they do not outcompete the R5 viruses. Similar observations were made in two infected macaques with coreceptor switch, providing in vivo evidence that fitness disadvantage is an obstacle to X4 emergence and expansion.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Type
Primate Research Center Grants (P51)
Project #
5P51RR000164-50
Application #
8358042
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRR1-CM-8 (01))
Project Start
2011-05-01
Project End
2012-04-30
Budget Start
2011-05-01
Budget End
2012-04-30
Support Year
50
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$57,750
Indirect Cost
Name
Tulane University
Department
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
053785812
City
New Orleans
State
LA
Country
United States
Zip Code
70118
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