This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. Primary support for the subproject and the subproject's principal investigator may have been provided by other sources, including other NIH sources. The Total Cost listed for the subproject likely represents the estimated amount of Center infrastructure utilized by the subproject, not direct funding provided by the NCRR grant to the subproject or subproject staff. Monocyte/macrophages and activated lymphocytes traffic through normal brain, and this trafficking is increased in inflammatory conditions such as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). HIVE is characterized in part by perivascular accumulations of macrophages. The earliest events in this process are poorly understood and difficult or impossible to address in humans. The SIV-infected macaque model of neuroAIDS has demonstrated migration of monocytes into the brain early in disease, coincident with peak SIV viremia. The chemotactic signals that initiate the increased emigration of mononuclear cells into the CNS have not been described. Here we describe astrocytes as a source of chemokines to facilitate basal levels of monocyte trafficking to CNS and that increased CCL7 production is probably responsible for initiating the increased trafficking in neuroAIDS. We have previously published complementary in vivo work demonstrating the presence of MCP-3/CCL7 (and other chemokines) within the brain of SIV-infected macaques. Here we demonstrate that MCP-3/CCL7 is a significant chemokine produced by astrocytes, that CCL7 is responsible for basal levels of monocyte recruitment and that production of CCL7 is rapidly increased by TNF and thus likely plays a critical role in initiating neuroinvasion by SIV/HIV.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Type
Primate Research Center Grants (P51)
Project #
5P51RR000164-50
Application #
8358099
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRR1-CM-8 (01))
Project Start
2011-05-01
Project End
2012-04-30
Budget Start
2011-05-01
Budget End
2012-04-30
Support Year
50
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$57,750
Indirect Cost
Name
Tulane University
Department
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
053785812
City
New Orleans
State
LA
Country
United States
Zip Code
70118
Yi, Fei; Guo, Jia; Dabbagh, Deemah et al. (2017) Discovery of Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors of LIM Domain Kinase for Inhibiting HIV-1. J Virol 91:
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