This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. Primary support for the subproject and the subproject's principal investigator may have been provided by other sources, including other NIH sources. The Total Cost listed for the subproject likely represents the estimated amount of Center infrastructure utilized by the subproject, not direct funding provided by the NCRR grant to the subproject or subproject staff. Objective: To recognize that lower primate species may possess self-awareness. PROGRESS: This research found that, under specific conditions, a rhesus macaque monkey that normally would fail a self-recognition """"""""mark"""""""" test can still recognize itself in a mirror and perform actions that scientists would expect from animals that are self-aware. This finding may cause us to re-evaluate the relevance of the mark test and the existence of a definitive cognitive divide between higher and lower primates. We placed head implants on two rhesus macaque monkeys while preparing to study attention deficit disorder and sensorimotor integration. An experienced animal technician observed that one of the monkeys could recognize itself in a small mirror, in contrast to evidence from the scientific literature. In the standard mark test, which chimpanzees and people easily pass, a harmless mark is put on the animal's face, where it can only be seen in a mirror. If the animal stares at the mirror and touches the mark, it is said to be self-aware: It knows that the mirror shows its own reflection, not that of another animal. Animals that lack self-awareness may, for example, search for the """"""""invading"""""""" animal behind the mirror, or adopt and aggressive or submissive response to the perceived intruder. Rhesus macaques, a mainstay of medical and psychological research, have long failed the mark test. But in our lab, the monkeys that got the implants were clearly looking in the mirror while examining and grooming their foreheads, near the implant. They were also examining areas on their body, particularly the genitals, that they had never seen before. In some cases, the monkeys even turned themselves upside down during these examinations. In other cases, they grasped and adjusted the mirror to get a better view of themselves. When we covered the mirror glass with black plastic, these behaviors disappeared, and the monkeys ignored what had been a subject of fascination. Scientists who have used the mark test to explore self-awareness have found the quality in one species of bird, in one individual elephant, and in dolphins and orangutans. And so instead of asking how self-awareness evolved only among primates, they face the larger question of how it evolved multiple times in distantly related species. This discovery may refine how the mark test is used, as we now clearly have data showing that rhesus macaques can recognize themselves in the mirror, even though the species fails the mark test. This research, while based in SMPH, involved the use of WNPRC Animal Services. News Item, Sept. 29, 2010: For first time, monkeys recognize themselves in the mirror, indicating self-awareness www.news.wisc.edu/18469 PUBLICATION: Abigail Z. Rajala, Katharine R. Reininger, Kimberly M. Lancaster, and Luis C. Populin. PLoS One. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Do Recognize Themselves in the Mirror: Implications for the Evolution of Self-Recognition 2010;5(9): e12865. E-pub 2010 September 29. PMCID: PMC2947497

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Type
Primate Research Center Grants (P51)
Project #
5P51RR000167-50
Application #
8358244
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRR1-CM-8 (01))
Project Start
2011-05-01
Project End
2012-04-30
Budget Start
2011-05-01
Budget End
2012-04-30
Support Year
50
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$320,572
Indirect Cost
Name
University of Wisconsin Madison
Department
Type
Other Domestic Higher Education
DUNS #
161202122
City
Madison
State
WI
Country
United States
Zip Code
53715
Ellis, Amy; Balgeman, Alexis; Rodgers, Mark et al. (2017) Characterization of T Cells Specific for CFP-10 and ESAT-6 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques. Infect Immun 85:
Mattison, Julie A; Colman, Ricki J; Beasley, T Mark et al. (2017) Caloric restriction improves health and survival of rhesus monkeys. Nat Commun 8:14063
Buechler, Connor R; Bailey, Adam L; Lauck, Michael et al. (2017) Genome Sequence of a Novel Kunsagivirus (Picornaviridae: Kunsagivirus) from a Wild Baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Genome Announc 5:
Rodrigues, Michelle A (2017) Female Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) Cope with Anthropogenic Disturbance Through Fission-Fusion Dynamics. Int J Primatol 38:838-855
Wu, Hong; Whritenour, Jessica; Sanford, Jonathan C et al. (2017) Identification of MHC Haplotypes Associated with Drug-induced Hypersensitivity Reactions in Cynomolgus Monkeys. Toxicol Pathol 45:127-133
Shackman, A J; Fox, A S; Oler, J A et al. (2017) Heightened extended amygdala metabolism following threat characterizes the early phenotypic risk to develop anxiety-related psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry 22:724-732
Kalin, Ned H (2017) Mechanisms underlying the early risk to develop anxiety and depression: A translational approach. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 27:543-553
Singaravelu, Janani; Zhao, Lian; Fariss, Robert N et al. (2017) Microglia in the primate macula: specializations in microglial distribution and morphology with retinal position and with aging. Brain Struct Funct 222:2759-2771
Feltovich, Helen (2017) Cervical Evaluation: From Ancient Medicine to Precision Medicine. Obstet Gynecol 130:51-63
Sutton, Matthew S; Burns, Charles M; Weiler, Andrea M et al. (2016) Vaccination with Live Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Protects from Mucosal, but Not Necessarily Intravenous, Challenge with a Minimally Heterologous SIV. J Virol 90:5541-8

Showing the most recent 10 out of 523 publications