There is a high rate of alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, and chronic alcohol use has been associated with high-risk sexual behavior, and reduced efficacy and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Collectively, these factors contribute to the transmission of HIV. In previous studies using the alcohol-fed rhesus macaques infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), we have shown that chronic alcohol use is associated with higher levels of SIV in peripheral blood and more rapid disease progression. Additionally, we have shown that alcohol induced changes in the immunological profile of the gut mucosa, resulting in higher levels of SIV replication in the gut and peripheral blood, while others have identified alcohol-associated immunological changes in several tissues during acute SIV infection. These observations have led us to hypothesize that alcohol consumption will change the cellular milieu in the genital and rectal mucosa, providing an environment conducive to HIV infection, early replication, and shedding in genital secretions. Further, we hypothesize that increased early viral replication in these tissues will reduce the efficacy of ART in post-exposure prophylaxis and the longitudinal control of genital HIV shedding. These hypotheses will be addressed using the well-established SIV-rhesus macaque model for HIV disease, through the following specific aims. (1) Test the prediction that chronic alcohol consumption changes the cellular milieu and cytokine expression in the rectal mucosa of male macaques and the vaginal and cervical mucosa of female macaques. (2)Test the prediction that chronic alcohol exposure impacts the early dynamics of SIV infection and reduces the efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis therapy. (3)Test the prediction that alcohol consumption increases SIV content in genital secretions, thereby increasing transmission risk. (4) Test the prediction that alcohol consumption reduces the ability of ART to suppress genital SIV shedding.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Comprehensive Center (P60)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAA1-DD (90))
Program Officer
Wang, Joe
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Louisiana State Univ Hsc New Orleans
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
New Orleans
United States
Zip Code
Kaplan, Kathryn C; Hormes, Julia M; Wallace, Maeve et al. (2016) Racial Discrimination and HIV-related Risk Behaviors in Southeast Louisiana. Am J Health Behav 40:132-43
Molina, Patricia E (2016) Mechanisms Involved in Disruption of Adipose Tissue Mass Resulting from Chronic Unhealthy Alcohol Consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 40:2296-2298
Guizzetti, Marina; Davies, Daryl L; Egli, Mark et al. (2016) Sex and the Lab: An Alcohol-Focused Commentary on the NIH Initiative to Balance Sex in Cell and Animal Studies. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 40:1182-91
de la Rua, Nicholas M; Samuelson, Derrick R; Charles, Tysheena P et al. (2016) CD4(+) T-Cell-Independent Secondary Immune Responses to Pneumocystis Pneumonia. Front Immunol 7:178
Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Salbaum, J Michael; Luo, Meng et al. (2016) Reply to: High-Fat Diet-Induced Dysbiosis as a Cause of Neuroinflammation. Biol Psychiatry 80:e5-6
Jolley, Sarah E; Alkhafaf, Qasim; Hough, Catherine et al. (2016) Presence of an Alcohol Use Disorder is Associated with Greater Pneumonia Severity in Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients. Lung 194:755-62
Simon, Liz; Song, Keijing; Vande Stouwe, Curtis et al. (2016) Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) Promotes Neuroimmune-Modulatory MicroRNA Profile in Striatum of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Infected Macaques. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 11:192-213
Fleckman, Julia M; Drury, Stacy S; Taylor, Catherine A et al. (2016) Role of Direct and Indirect Violence Exposure on Externalizing Behavior in Children. J Urban Health 93:479-92
Goldsmith, Felicia; Guice, Justin; Page, Ryan et al. (2016) Obese ZDF rats fermented resistant starch with effects on gut microbiota but no reduction in abdominal fat. Mol Nutr Food Res :
Robichaux, Spencer; Lacour, Nedra; Bagby, Gregory J et al. (2016) Validation of RPS13 as a reference gene for absolute quantification of SIV RNA in tissue of rhesus macaques. J Virol Methods 236:245-51

Showing the most recent 10 out of 84 publications