Although a number of treatments for cocaine dependence are efficacious, there are several major challengesto the effectiveness of treatment in community settings, including lack of interest in traditional specialty caremodels, high rates of early dropout, and considerable variability of response in patients who initially engagein treatment. Recent work done by our group and others suggests that adaptive treatment models can ad-Dress many of the problems that interfere with the successful delivery of effective addition treatment. Thesemodels are designed to increase participation in treatment by providing flexible care that is tailored over timeon the basis of patient response to treatment, and patient choice or preference. The goal of this project is thefurther development of an adaptive model of care for individuals with cocaine dependence who seek treatmentin community-based, specialty care programs. Patients (N=300) who complete an intake at an IntensiveOutpatient Program (1OP) will be randomized into two conditions, which use telephone-based MotivationalInterviewing (Ml) to increase rates of engagement in either standard IOP (MI-IOP), or in one of threetreatment options selected by the patient (MI-PC). Patients are eligible for these interventions if they fail toattend IOP regularly in weeks 1-2 (the 'Non-engaged' group), of if they achieve initial engagement (the 'Engaged'group) but subsequently stop attending IOP at some point during weeks 3-12. The treatment optionsin MI-PC are IOP, telephone-based stepped care, or the combination of modafinil and medication managementin the Non-engaged group; and IOP, telephone-based stepped care, or Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment(CBT) in the Engaged group. The options for the Non-engaged and the Engaged groups differ slightly,because we wanted to offer a non-specialty care alternative (e.g., modafinil) to patients who failed to achieveinitial engagement in IOP, whereas limiting options in Engaged patients to lOP-based interventions seemedclinically appropriate. Primary analyses will compare MI-IOP and MI-PC on rates engagement/retention overthe first 12 Weeks and cocaine use outcomes over weeks 1-24, and determine whether the predicted advantageof MI-PC over MI-IOP varies as a function of being in the Non-engaged or the Engaged groups. Furtheranalyses will examine secondary outcomes, rates of selection of each treatment option in the MI-PC Nonengagedand Engaged groups, and outcomes within each of these treatment options.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Comprehensive Center (P60)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZDA1-RXL-E (29))
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University of Pennsylvania
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