The proposed research project explores racial and ethnic group disparities in physical and mental health by continuing to develop the Environmental Affordances Framework (EAF). Relative to non-Hispanic whites, black Americans have a higher burden of physical health conditions and mortality, but similar or lower risks for most mental disorders, in highly stressful environments individuals often engage in environmentally available negative health behaviors, e.g. smoking, alcohol use, and over-eating to cope with the stressors of daily life. These negative health behaviors may either block the neurological cascade or mask the psychological experiences of poor mental health, by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis and related neurobiological systems, thus exerting a protective effect on mental health. However, the same chronic stress exposures and poor health behaviors are silently affecting biological pathways to eventual negative physical health morbidities and mortality. Collectively the aims of the proposed study represent a direct extension of the EAF. First, using propensity score analysis we will explore the contrasting findings across racial groups, in an attempt to unmask what we have entitled the """"""""masquerade of racial group differences"""""""". Second, we will examine the differential age of onset of physical and mental disorders among racial groups. Third, we will assess pathways linking social and environmental factors, psychosocial stress, biological markers of stress, and cardiovascular health;we will examine statistical models separately among males and females, and then assess by age cohort. In a sub objective of this Aim we will explore potential gene expression - environment interactions in understanding the differential prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular outcomes. Key environmental and social factors include skin tone and experiences with discrimination. Fourth, we will conduct a small clinical pilot study to assess the potential protective effects of mindfulness meditation and other interventions to reduce racial group disparities in cardiovascular health and mental health. Mindfulness meditation may have similar effects on the HPA-axis stress response as do poor health behaviors.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to top public health agendas. Across all forms'of CVD rates of long-term adherence to recommended healthy behavioral changes are spotty at best. We believe that physical and mental health disparities are linked to the lack of behavioral change adherence. The findings of this study will aid in developing programs and policies needed to address the physical and mental health challenges in racial and ethnic disparities related to cardiovascular and other metabolic disorders.
|Redmond, Nicole; Booth 3rd, John N; Tanner, Rikki M et al. (2016) Prevalence of Masked Hypertension and Its Association With Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in African Americans: Results From the Jackson Heart Study. J Am Heart Assoc 5:e002284|
|Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D; Mezuk, Briana R et al. (2016) Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients. Diabetes Educ 42:116-25|
|Ford, Cassandra D; Sims, Mario; Higginbotham, John C et al. (2016) Psychosocial Factors Are Associated With Blood Pressure Progression Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. Am J Hypertens 29:913-24|
|Booth 3rd, John N; Diaz, Keith M; Seals, Samantha R et al. (2016) Masked Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Events in a Prospective Cohort of Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study. Hypertension 68:501-10|
|Baek, Jonggyu; SÃ¡nchez, Brisa N; Berrocal, Veronica J et al. (2016) Distributed Lag Models: Examining Associations Between the Built Environment and Health. Epidemiology 27:116-24|
|Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O et al. (2016) Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora. Subst Use Misuse 51:1147-58|
|Diez Roux, Ana V; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Hirsch, Jana A et al. (2016) The Impact of Neighborhoods on CV Risk. Glob Heart 11:353-363|
|Barber, Sharrelle; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kawachi, Ichiro et al. (2016) Double-jeopardy: The joint impact of neighborhood disadvantage and low social cohesion on cumulative risk of disease among African American men and women in the Jackson Heart Study. Soc Sci Med 153:107-15|
|Hudson, Darrell L; Neighbors, Harold W; Geronimus, Arline T et al. (2016) Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans. J Black Psychol 42:221-243|
|Johnson, Dayna A; Lisabeth, Lynda; Hickson, DeMarc et al. (2016) The Social Patterning of Sleep in African Americans: Associations of Socioeconomic Position and Neighborhood Characteristics with Sleep in the Jackson Heart Study. Sleep 39:1749-59|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 120 publications