The involvement of endotoxin in early alcohol-induced liver injury is well established; supporting the hypothesis, that pathogenesis involves aspects of innate immunity and inflammatory mediators. A number of reports have clearly demonstrated that Kupffer cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis due to ethanol. Specifically, it was shown that mice deficient in the endotoxin receptor CD14, which is primarily expressed on Kupffer cells, were resistant to chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. These data suggest that CD14 signaling may be a critical component in alcohol-related liver injury. The overall hypothesis is that LPS from the gut activates Kupffer cells causing an increase in oxidant production and subsequent TNF-alpha release. This hypothesis is strongly supported by a number of studies using gene therapy, knockout and transgenic animals, as well as an in vivo mouse intragastric ethanol-feeding model. Despite a great amount of new information regarding the role of endotoxin in ethanol-induced liver injury, critical gaps still exist in our understanding. For example, the signaling mechanisms involved in LPS- induced oxidant production, the regulation of CD14 and related signaling components in pathogenesis, and the molecular mechanisms determining gender- related differences in injury remain unknown. The purpose of this application is to address the following underlying hypotheses: 1. PI3 kinase mediates LPS-induced NADPH oxidase generation of superoxide in Kupffer cells. 2. Oxidant-sensitive transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 regulate CD14 expression following acute ethanol administration. 3. Gender differences in regulation of innate immune response and transcription factor activation are key to increased susceptibility to ethanol-induced pathogenesis in females.
The aims below will use gene delivery techniques and knockout mouse technology to address these critical questions related to roles of LPS, PI3 kinase activation, and CD14 expression in both acute ethanol and chronic ethanol toxicity.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01AA014243-05
Application #
7211497
Study Section
Alcohol and Toxicology Subcommittee 4 (ALTX)
Program Officer
Radaeva, Svetlana
Project Start
2003-04-01
Project End
2009-03-31
Budget Start
2007-04-01
Budget End
2009-03-31
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2007
Total Cost
$241,431
Indirect Cost
Name
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Department
Pharmacology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
608195277
City
Chapel Hill
State
NC
Country
United States
Zip Code
27599
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