The overarching objective of the proposed research is to improve the prediction of hazardous drinking (HD;heavy alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences) in college students. For young adults, the college years are associated with increased risk for heavy alcohol use and problems, including death, physical injury, sexual and/or physical assault, unprotected sex, and driving while intoxicated. Dual process models of drinking suggest a way to improve the prediction of HD. Dual process models posit that both explicit (slow, reflective) cognitive processes and implicit (fast, reflexive) cognitive processes contribute to addictive behaviors. However, alcohol research has emphasized explicit processes, which may leave implicit processes unaccounted for. The proposed research seeks to increase the prediction of HD by accounting for implicit processes through the use implicit measures (IMs) of alcohol associations. We propose to focus on the prediction of two, different aspects of HD. First, dual process models posit that implicit processes become increasingly important as addictive behaviors become established. For college students, the early college years represent both a time period when drinking behaviors are being established and a time period of heightened risk for HD. Therefore, we propose to conduct a prospective study that will follow a random sample of 500 students in their early college years and assess IMs, their explicit self-report measure (EM) counterparts, and measures of hazardous drinking at 3-month intervals for 2 years. We will investigate the full range of drinkers (abstainers to heavy users) a a time of increased risk, which will allow for an examination of within- and between-person change in hazardous drinking, IMs, and EMs. Second, dual process models posit that, in established drinkers, implicit processes should dominate when cognitive processing resources are limited or are unlikely to be applied, such as in the presence of positive affect or when self-regulation resources are depleted (ego-depleted). For college students drinkers, positive affect and ego-depleted-related drinking are associated with greater alcohol consumption and experiencing more alcohol-related problems. Therefore, we propose to conduct 2 laboratory studies that will include IMs and EMs;induce positive affect or ego depletion;and measure participants'alcohol consumption in a subsequent ad lib drinking task. A sample of 100 legal-age, college student, and heavy episodic drinkers will be recruited for each study. Studies 2 and 3 will, thus, allow for an investigation of IMs and EMs as predictors of actual alcohol consumption under positive affect or ego depletion conditions - conditions that are associated with increased risk and shallower cognitive processes - in a sample of established drinkers. Collectively, the proposed studies are intended to improve the prediction of HD in college students by accounting for implicit processes, and ultimately, are intended to identify additional targets for prevention and intervention efforts.

Public Health Relevance

Despite decades of research, rates of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems remain high and are largely unabated. The proposed research uses innovative approaches (dual process models) and methods (measures of implicit alcohol associations) to improve the prediction of hazardous drinking in college students. Findings from the proposed research are intended not only to increase the prediction of hazardous drinking but also to identify additional risk factors that can be targets for future prevention and intervention efforts.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01AA021763-02
Application #
8597995
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-RPIA-N (09))
Program Officer
Godette, Dionne
Project Start
2012-12-15
Project End
2017-11-30
Budget Start
2013-12-01
Budget End
2014-11-30
Support Year
2
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$335,024
Indirect Cost
$65,137
Name
University of Washington
Department
Psychiatry
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
605799469
City
Seattle
State
WA
Country
United States
Zip Code
98195
Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A et al. (2016) Implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, predict drinking over time. Health Psychol 35:908-18
Ramirez, Jason J; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Baldwin, Scott A et al. (2016) Alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity as predictors of behavioral economic demand for alcohol. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 24:356-366
Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C et al. (2016) Not the same old thing: Establishing the unique contribution of drinking identity as a predictor of alcohol consumption and problems over time. Psychol Addict Behav 30:659-71
Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra et al. (2016) Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample. Addict Behav 60:177-83
Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A et al. (2015) Habit doesn't make the predictions stronger: implicit alcohol associations and habitualness predict drinking uniquely. Addict Behav 45:139-45
Kulesza, Magdalena; Teachman, Bethany A; Werntz, Alexandra J et al. (2015) Correlates of public support toward federal funding for harm reduction strategies. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 10:25
Kilmer, Jason R; Geisner, Irene Markman; Gasser, Melissa L et al. (2015) Normative perceptions of non-medical stimulant use: associations with actual use and hazardous drinking. Addict Behav 42:51-6
Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Wiers, Reinout W et al. (2015) Evaluating implicit drinking identity as a mediator of drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving. Addict Behav 43:33-8
Lindgren, Kristen P; Wiers, Reinout W; Teachman, Bethany A et al. (2015) Attempted Training of Alcohol Approach and Drinking Identity Associations in US Undergraduate Drinkers: Null Results from Two Studies. PLoS One 10:e0134642
Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C et al. (2014) Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems. Psychol Addict Behav 28:880-6

Showing the most recent 10 out of 11 publications