The purpose of this epidemiologic study is to determine the 5-year incidence of hearing, vision, and olfactory impairments, sensory co-morbidity and age-related macular degeneration in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) cohort, the associations of potential risk factors with these sensory impairments and ocular disorders, generational differences in risk and identify genetic markers for hearing impairment. Subjects are participants in the BOSS and were 21-84 years of age at the baseline examination (2005-2008). The proposed examination will use the same standardized protocols used in the baseline examination and will include a hearing evaluation (otoscopy, screening tympanometry, audiometry, word recognition and dichotic listening tests, distortion product otoacoustic emissions), eye examination (refraction, visual acuity measures, contrast sensitivity, and digital images of the lens and retina), olfaction testing (San Diego Odor Identification Test), and vascular measures (intima-medial thickness, blood pressure, retinal arteriolar and venular calibers, and pulse wave velocity). A standardized questionnaire about medical history, life-style factors and medication usage will be completed. Inflammatory markers (VCAM-1, TNF-1, hsCRP) will be measured on stored baseline samples to determine their associations with the incidence of sensory impairments. Stored samples from adults, ages 45-79 yrs in the BOSS and the parent cohort seen in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (AG11099), will be genotyped using a 50,000 SNP panel of candidate genes for cardiovascular disease, inflammation and diabetes. This study of middle-aged adults will provide important new information about the epidemiology of sensory impairments in the people born during the baby-boom period (1946-64) compared to people born in earlier periods. We propose that these sensory impairments share common underlying risk factors which may operate through inflammatory and vascular pathways. This study will contribute to developing interventions targeted at mid-life to prevent or delay the onset of these sensory disorders of aging and essential information for planning to meet the health care needs of the aging baby-boom generation.
The proposed study will contribute important information about the risk of developing hearing, olfaction and vision impairments and age-related macular degeneration in middle-aged adults. Understanding factors associated with the development of these conditions could lead to new treatments targeted at improving health for tomorrow's elders.
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