Peripheral T cell tolerance is an important immunological outcome that inhibits deleterious immune responses to both self and non-self antigens (Ags). Impaired immune tolerance can manifest as either allergic or autoimmune disease. In a murine model of tolerance induced by inhaled Ag, we previously identified regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing Foxp3 and membrane-bound TGF-? (mTGF-?) that functionally suppressed allergic airway inflammation induced by the Ag. We also demonstrated cross-talk between mTGF-? and Notch1 as one mechanism of induced tolerance. With the current concepts of adaptive/induced Tregs (iTregs) and infectious tolerance elicited in response to foreign Ags, we have initiated studies to examine generation of iTregs with a bigger goal of understanding how the function of a Treg can be enhanced and stabilized. Using Foxp3 reporter mice in conjunction with CD11c-DTR mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor on CD11c cells, we have established a system to determine which dendritic cell (DC) subsets contribute to iTreg induction. In other studies of involvement of Tregs in controlling allergic disease, we have found a role for vitamin D3 in promoting mTGF-? cells in the context of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Given the current interest in vit D3 in regulating allergic diseases with little understanding of how vit D receptor (VDR)-mediated effects cause immunosuppression, we propose to use genetically altered mice to investigate the role of vit D in Foxp3- versus CD11c-expressing cells in iTreg generation. Finally, as proposed in the previous cycle of this grant, we have successfully generated a CD4 T cell-specific inducible transgenic mouse expressing Hes1, a downstream target of Notch1. This mouse was generated to understand the role of Hes1 in Treg-mediated immunosuppression, particularly in the context of inflammation, which compromises Treg function. Our overall hypothesis for this proposal is: Treg induction by inhaled Ag involves a subset of DCs and the process can be enhanced and stabilized by VDR- and Notch1/Hes1 pathways. To address this hypothesis we will:
Aim I. Identify the specific DC subsets in the lung that induce iTregs in response to Ag.
Aim II. Investigate the involvement of vitamin D and VDR in Foxp3+ Tregs versus CD11c+ cells in promoting inhaled tolerance.
Aim III. Study the ability of Hes1, a downstream target of Notch1, expressed in an inducible fashion in CD4+ T cells, to stabilize and preserve Treg function in the lungs of mice subjected to airway inflammation.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Project (R01)
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Lung Cellular, Molecular, and Immunobiology Study Section (LCMI)
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Minnicozzi, Michael
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University of Pittsburgh
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Oriss, Timothy B; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Raundhal, Mahesh et al. (2014) Cutting Edge: MMP-9 inhibits IL-23p19 expression in dendritic cells by targeting membrane stem cell factor affecting lung IL-17 response. J Immunol 192:5471-5
Oriss, Timothy B; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Ray, Prabir et al. (2014) Dendritic cell c-kit signaling and adaptive immunity: implications for the upper airways. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 14:7-12
Ray, Anuradha; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Ray, Prabir (2013) Immunosuppressive MDSCs induced by TLR signaling during infection and role in resolution of inflammation. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 3:52
Khare, Anupriya; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Oriss, Timothy B et al. (2013) Cutting edge: inhaled antigen upregulates retinaldehyde dehydrogenase in lung CD103+ but not plasmacytoid dendritic cells to induce Foxp3 de novo in CD4+ T cells and promote airway tolerance. J Immunol 191:25-9
Poe, S L; Arora, M; Oriss, T B et al. (2013) STAT1-regulated lung MDSC-like cells produce IL-10 and efferocytose apoptotic neutrophils with relevance in resolution of bacterial pneumonia. Mucosal Immunol 6:189-99
Arora, Meenakshi; Poe, Stephanie L; Ray, Anuradha et al. (2011) LPS-induced CD11b+Gr1(int)F4/80+ regulatory myeloid cells suppress allergen-induced airway inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol 11:827-32
Ray, Prabir; Arora, Meenakshi; Poe, Stephanie L et al. (2011) Lung myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulation of inflammation. Immunol Res 50:153-8
Fei, Mingjian; Bhatia, Shikha; Oriss, Timothy B et al. (2011) TNF-alpha from inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) regulates lung IL-17A/IL-5 levels and neutrophilia versus eosinophilia during persistent fungal infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5360-5
Bhatia, Shikha; Fei, Mingjian; Yarlagadda, Manohar et al. (2011) Rapid host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus involves alveolar macrophages with a predominance of alternatively activated phenotype. PLoS One 6:e15943
Ray, Prabir; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Oriss, Timothy B et al. (2010) Signaling of c-kit in dendritic cells influences adaptive immunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1183:104-22

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