The broad long-term objectives of our research on the transmission and control of Schistosoma japonicum infections in China have been to develop methods for the design of site-specific control programs to achieve the sustainable cessation of transmission. The recent re-emergence of transmission in formerly controlled counties has prompted this proposal, in which we extend our objectives to include an understanding of the determinants of re-emergence, which will inform the design of surveillance programs for the early detection and minimization of the scale and impact of re-emergence.
The aims of our research are to 1. Test the hypothesis that re-emergence is driven by two village-level factors: internal potential (a village's inherent ability to support transmission that includes snail density, human and animal hosts, and agricultural practices) and connectivity (factors related to the introduction of parasites from endemic areas), which can be obtained from existing historical records and remote sensing;2. Using a case-control study, test the hypothesis that individual-level within-village and outside-village water contact is predictive of the initial infections in re-emergent villages;and 3. Utilize a stochastic model of re-emergent transmission to explore the effect of chance events on the design of an effective surveillance system. Relevance to public health: This research is relevant to public health, in that it will increase our knowledge of the factors related to infectious disease re-emergence. Through this understanding, better surveillance approaches can be developed to protect public health.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
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Vector Biology Study Section (VB)
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Rao, Malla R
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University of California Berkeley
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Schools of Public Health
United States
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Wang, Shuo; Spear, Robert C (2016) Exposure versus Susceptibility as Alternative Bases for New Approaches to Surveillance for Schistosoma japonicum in Low Transmission Environments. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0004425
Wang, Shuo; Spear, Robert C (2015) Exploring the contribution of host susceptibility to epidemiological patterns of Schistosoma japonicum infection using an individual-based model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92:1245-52
Carlton, Elizabeth J; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo et al. (2015) Associations between schistosomiasis and the use of human waste as an agricultural fertilizer in China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9:e0003444
Wang, Shuo; Spear, Robert C (2014) Exploring the impact of infection-induced immunity on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in hilly and mountainous environments in China. Acta Trop 133:8-14
Wang, Shuo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Chen, Lin et al. (2013) Evaluation of an educational intervention on villagers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in Sichuan province, China. Acta Trop 127:226-35
Xiao, Ning; Remais, Justin V; Brindley, Paul J et al. (2013) Approaches to genotyping individual miracidia of Schistosoma japonicum. Parasitol Res 112:3991-9
Carlton, Elizabeth J; Hubbard, Alan; Wang, Shuo et al. (2013) Repeated Schistosoma japonicum infection following treatment in two cohorts: evidence for host susceptibility to helminthiasis? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2098
Moore, Julia L; Liang, Song; Akullian, Adam et al. (2012) Cautioning the use of degree-day models for climate change projections in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Ecol Appl 22:2237-47
Gong, Peng; Liang, Song; Carlton, Elizabeth J et al. (2012) Urbanisation and health in China. Lancet 379:843-52
Spear, Robert C (2012) Internal versus external determinants of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural villages. J R Soc Interface 9:272-82

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