Most bacterial viruses (""""""""bacteriophages"""""""" or just """"""""phages"""""""") are highly efficient in their ability to infect their often very specific bacterial hosts. In general, only one or a few viral particles are necessary to successfully infect one bacterium. As a consequence there has been a long, unfulfilled hope that phages could be used as antibiotics. The need for alternative antibiotics is becoming ever more acute as common bacterial pathogens are developing resistant mutations, making it urgent to develop alternatives such as phage therapy. In addition, recombinant phages have been suggested as a means for gene therapy and as potential antigens for development of vaccines. Bacteriophage T4 has been a model system to study virus structure and function, having advanced biochemical principles of the assembly of biological complexes and protein-protein interactions. We have extensive experience in both structural and functional studies of phage T4. We now wish to expand this knowledge and make it available for potential medical applications. The plan is to analyze the structure and assembly of the capsid (Specific Aim 1), the DNA packaging machine (Specific Aim 2), the tail assembly (Specific Aim 3), assembly of the tail with head (Specific Aim 4) and the recognition of the host by the phage fibers (Specific Aim 5). Our primary tools will be molecular biology, protein chemistry, crystallography and electron microscopy. Molecular biology studies will produce pure samples in sufficient quantity for structural and functional studies. Crystallographic studies will be of protein components, providing three-dimensional information at near atomic resolution. Cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions will provide three-dimensional data on the organization of the protein components within the virus. Combining these techniques will generate """"""""pseudo-atomic"""""""" resolution structures of the virus at different stages of its life cycle.
We plan to extend the structural and functional knowledge of bacteriophage T4, which would advance basic knowledge of protein-protein interactions and macromolecular assembly. At this stage we do not directly plan work on medical applications, yet T4 is perhaps the most thoroughly studied phage and, thus, is the most likely candidate for developing its potential as an antibiotic, as a vaccine, and for the delivery of genes to targeted cells for gene therapy. The research will center on the structure of the phage tail and fibers relevant for host recognition, the mechanism of the DNA packaging motor relevant for gene delivery and therapy, and the structure of the capsid relevant for vaccine development.
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|Rossmann, Michael G (2018) My happy years of collaboration with Fumio Arisaka. Biophys Rev 10:139-140|
|Ordyan, Mariam; Alam, Istiaq; Mahalingam, Marthandan et al. (2018) Nucleotide-dependent DNA gripping and an end-clamp mechanism regulate the bacteriophage T4 viral packaging motor. Nat Commun 9:5434|
|Chen, Zhenguo; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Zhihong et al. (2017) Cryo-EM structure of the bacteriophage T4 isometric head at 3.3-Å resolution and its relevance to the assembly of icosahedral viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E8184-E8193|
|Lin, Siying; Alam, Tanfis I; Kottadiel, Vishal I et al. (2017) Altering the speed of a DNA packaging motor from bacteriophage T4. Nucleic Acids Res 45:11437-11448|
|Tao, Pan; Wu, Xiaorong; Tang, Wei-Chun et al. (2017) Engineering of Bacteriophage T4 Genome Using CRISPR-Cas9. ACS Synth Biol 6:1952-1961|
|Gao, Song; Zhang, Liang; Rao, Venigalla B (2016) Exclusion of small terminase mediated DNA threading models for genome packaging in bacteriophage T4. Nucleic Acids Res 44:4425-39|
|Arisaka, Fumio; Yap, Moh Lan; Kanamaru, Shuji et al. (2016) Molecular assembly and structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail. Biophys Rev 8:385-396|
|Fokine, Andrei; Rossmann, Michael G (2016) Common Evolutionary Origin of Procapsid Proteases, Phage Tail Tubes, and Tubes of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems. Structure 24:1928-1935|
|Yap, Moh Lan; Klose, Thomas; Arisaka, Fumio et al. (2016) Role of bacteriophage T4 baseplate in regulating assembly and infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:2654-9|
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