In two recent papers published in Science, we have demonstrated that public sector scale-up of ART in rural South Africa led to (i) large increases in adult life expectancy and (ii) significant declines in HIV infection risk, both measured at the population level (Bor et al. 2013; Tanser et al. 2013). And yet: HIV incidence and mortality rates remain unacceptably high in this HIV-endemic setting. In particular, young women (aged 15-30) remain at extremely high risk of HIV acquisition and more effective prevention programming is urgently needed for this group. Moreover, while the mass provision of free ART in public sector facilities in South Africa has dramatically reduced HIV-related mortality for both men and women, HIV-infected men are benefitting to a far lesser extent than women, because men are far less likely to link to HIV care. If the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets are to be realized the gender gap in ART access has got to be closed. The two deficiencies in current HIV programs - continued high HIV incidence in women and comparatively low ART access in men - are inextricably linked. For successful treatment-as prevention, it is urgent that those large numbers of HIV-infected men - who are currently not benefitting from ART and who are infecting young women - are started on ART. Existing evidence and preliminary data from this community suggest that increased HIV testing and linkage to care can be successfully achieved through a combination of home-based HIV testing and financial incentives for both HIV testing and linkage to care. In this proposal we seek to reduce young female HIV incidence and male HIV-related mortality through a once-off, two-stage financial incentive to encourage HIV testing and linkage to HIV treatment in a real- world setting along. We will supplement this with some elements of motivational counselling and develop gender-sensitive approaches which draw on existing values and norms for men and for women. Following development we will implement the intervention in one third of the 42 communities contained in the Africa Centre's HIV surveillance area. Using a difference-in-differences design within an implementation science framework we will leverage the statistical power gained through a decade's long HIV surveillance and will compare the change in male viral load, male mortality and female incidence (15-30 years of age) pre and post intervention for residents of communities who receive and who do not receive the intervention respectively. Participants will then be followed up routinely through the Africa Centre's ongoing population-based HIV surveillance for three years. The results of this work will directly inform the development and targeting of prevention efforts in the context of generalized ART coverage.

Public Health Relevance

The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy has transformed the health of HIV-endemic populations in South Africa, with unprecedented gains in life expectancy (Bor et al. 2013) and significant reductions in risk of new infection (Tanser et al. 2013). Nevertheless HIV-related mortality and HIV incidence rates remain high in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In particular, young women (aged 15-30) remain at extremely high risk of HIV acquisition and more effective prevention programming is urgently needed for this group. Utilizing the statistical power of a decade-long population-based HIV cohort in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we will establish for the first time - through a rigorous impact evaluation - whether an intervention targeting men for motivation of HIV testing and ART program linkage can reduce HIV-related mortality in men and HIV incidence in young women. The results of this work will directly inform the development and targeting of prevention efforts in the context of generalized ART coverage.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01AI124389-03
Application #
9535857
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1)
Program Officer
Miller, Judith A
Project Start
2016-05-05
Project End
2021-04-30
Budget Start
2018-05-01
Budget End
2019-04-30
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2018
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
Kwazulu-Natal Research Institute Tb-HIV
Department
Type
DUNS #
652889541
City
Durban
State
Country
South Africa
Zip Code
4001
Reniers, Georges; Blom, Sylvia; Calvert, Clara et al. (2017) Trends in the burden of HIV mortality after roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an observational community cohort study. Lancet HIV 4:e113-e121
Reniers, Georges; Blom, Sylvia; Lieber, Judith et al. (2017) Tuberculosis mortality and the male survival deficit in rural South Africa: An observational community cohort study. PLoS One 12:e0185692
Dobra, Adrian; Bärnighausen, Till; Vandormael, Alain et al. (2017) Space-time migration patterns and risk of HIV acquisition in rural South Africa. AIDS 31:137-145
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Tomita, Andrew; Vandormael, Alain M; Cuadros, Diego et al. (2017) Proximity to healthcare clinic and depression risk in South Africa: geospatial evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 52:1023-1030
Geldsetzer, Pascal; Feigl, Andrea B; Tanser, Frank et al. (2017) Population-level decline in BMI and systolic blood pressure following mass HIV treatment: Evidence from rural KwaZulu-Natal. Obesity (Silver Spring) 25:200-206
GBD 2016 Mortality Collaborators (2017) Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 390:1084-1150
Geldsetzer, Pascal; Bärnighausen, Till (2017) Late-stage research for diabetes and related NCDs receives little funding: evidence from the NIH RePORTER tool. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 5:91-92
Harling, Guy; Gumede, Dumile; Mutevedzi, Tinofa et al. (2017) The impact of self-interviews on response patterns for sensitive topics: a randomized trial of electronic delivery methods for a sexual behaviour questionnaire in rural South Africa. BMC Med Res Methodol 17:125
Chanda, Michael M; Ortblad, Katrina F; Mwale, Magdalene et al. (2017) Contraceptive use and unplanned pregnancy among female sex workers in Zambia. Contraception 96:196-202

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