The biological springs that act in parallel and in series with skeletal muscle contractile elements can significantly influence the force, power and displacement of muscle fibers during locomotion. All movements involve dynamic interaction between passive elastic structures and muscle contractile elements, but our understanding of the consequences of this interaction for normal gait is very limited. Our long-term goal is to define the mechanical influence of elastic elements on muscle force production and gait. The work proposed here focuses on how passive elastic structures within muscle influence fascicle length changes during lengthening contractions. Recent work indicates that the shape changes that occur in muscle and tendinous aponeuroses during contraction have a significant influence on the speed of contraction via a gearing mechanism associated with muscle fascicle rotation (i.e. changes in pennation angle). This effect is variable, and may be a critical yet previously unappreciated mechanism for modulating muscle speed and force in healthy pennate muscles. The project combines a unique animal model system with novel imaging modalities to make direct measurements of muscle force, length change, and dynamic shape changes both in vivo and in isolated muscles.
The specific aims of the project are: 1) to test the hypothesis that muscle fiber length changes during eccentric contractions are accommodated by aponeurosis stretch and muscle fascicle rotation to significantly reduce muscle fascicle lengthening;2) to demonstrate the role of dynamic muscle shape changes during locomotion;3) to test the hypothesis that the protective effects of muscle shape changes are compromised in muscles with altered extracellular matrix properties. Changes in the elastic properties of connective tissue elements within muscle are associated with several neuromuscular disorders, aging, and secondary to stroke and spinal cord injury. A fundamental understanding of the influence of these elements on muscle mechanical function will inform the design of rehabilitative strategies to improve muscle-tendon function. An improved understanding of how parallel elastic elements influence the mechanical behavior of healthy muscle- tendon units may also aid in the design of prosthetic devices.

Public Health Relevance

Changes in the elastic properties of connective tissue elements within muscle are associated with several neuromuscular disorders, aging, and secondary to stroke and spinal cord injury. A fundamental understanding of the influence of these elements on muscle mechanical function will inform the design of rehabilitative strategies to improve muscle-tendon function. An improved understanding of how parallel elastic elements influence the mechanical behavior of healthy muscle- tendon units may also aid in the design of prosthetic devices.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
3R01AR055295-06S1
Application #
8683529
Study Section
Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Sciences Study Section (MRS)
Program Officer
Boyce, Amanda T
Project Start
2013-09-01
Project End
2016-05-31
Budget Start
2013-09-01
Budget End
2014-05-31
Support Year
6
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$69,865
Indirect Cost
$26,871
Name
Brown University
Department
Biology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
001785542
City
Providence
State
RI
Country
United States
Zip Code
02912
Holt, N C; Azizi, E (2016) The effect of activation level on muscle function during locomotion: are optimal lengths and velocities always used? Proc Biol Sci 283:
Roberts, Thomas J (2016) Contribution of elastic tissues to the mechanics and energetics of muscle function during movement. J Exp Biol 219:266-75
Holt, Natalie C; Danos, Nicole; Roberts, Thomas J et al. (2016) Stuck in gear: age-related loss of variable gearing in skeletal muscle. J Exp Biol 219:998-1003
Arellano, Christopher J; Gidmark, Nicholas J; Konow, Nicolai et al. (2016) Determinants of aponeurosis shape change during muscle contraction. J Biomech 49:1812-7
Sawicki, Gregory S; Robertson, Benjamin D; Azizi, Emanuel et al. (2015) Timing matters: tuning the mechanics of a muscle-tendon unit by adjusting stimulation phase during cyclic contractions. J Exp Biol 218:3150-9
Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J (2015) The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration. Proc Biol Sci 282:20142800
Sawicki, Gregory S; Sheppard, Peter; Roberts, Thomas J (2015) Power amplification in an isolated muscle-tendon unit is load dependent. J Exp Biol 218:3700-9
Arellano, Christopher J; Kram, Rodger (2014) Partitioning the metabolic cost of human running: a task-by-task approach. Integr Comp Biol 54:1084-98
Holt, Natalie C; Roberts, Thomas J; Askew, Graham N (2014) The energetic benefits of tendon springs in running: is the reduction of muscle work important? J Exp Biol 217:4365-71
Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J (2014) Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening. J Exp Biol 217:376-81

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