This project focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which an autonomous parvovirus enters and establishes infection in its host cell. Structural and genetic approaches will be used to explore dynamic, sequential interactions between virions of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) and host cell factors during entry. These studies will contribute to our understanding of the host range constraints and pathogenesis of parvoviruses, the molecular mimicry they use to usurp host regulatory circuits, and their potential use as oncotropic vectors for tumor immunotherapy. Viewing the virion as an entry nanomachine, particular emphasis will be placed on dissecting the function of the N-terminus of the minor capsid polypeptide, VP1SR, which has been defined as a major effector domain in viral penetration of the cell. We will combine genetic dissection and NMR spectroscopy to explore the structure and folding properties of the VP1SR, and cryo-electron microscopy to delineate the pH- and energy-driven structural transformations of the viral capsid shell. In vivo tracking by FLAsH labelling, differential PCR and specific antibodies will be combined with site- directed mutagenesis and trafficking assays to assess the roles, in viral entry, of specific residues and peptide motifs identified within the VP1SR and in the 8A pore at the virion 5-fold vertex. The relationship between steps of entry and the tropism of particular viral strains will be investigated in both productive and restrictive virus:host interactions. The roles of virion and VP1SR signaling, WW-domain protein interaction, ubiquitylation and VPR targeting will be explored in endosomal escape, cytosolic trafficking and entry of the virion into the nucleus. The role of the NS2 non-structural proteins in both tissue specificity and oncoselectivity will be explored in cell culture and in vivo. Viral anti-tumor vectors, based on MVM, designed to elicit tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic effector cells, will be optimized for their ability to augment immunotherapy of neoplastic disease. Strategies to improve vector production will be pursued and combinatorial approaches used to select recombinant viruses with enhanced target cell specificity, which will be tested for improved efficacy as immunomodulatory vectors. The proposed research will explore parvoviral structure and entry, as they relate to the basis of viral allotropism and oncoselectivity. This understanding is a necessary prerequisite for the translational use of these viruses as vectors for the introduction of therapeutic immunomodulatory genes into human tumor cells for the treatment of neoplastic disease.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Project (R01)
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Virology - A Study Section (VIRA)
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Daschner, Phillip J
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Yale University
Schools of Medicine
New Haven
United States
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Pittman, Nikéa; Misseldine, Adam; Geilen, Lorena et al. (2017) Atomic Resolution Structure of the Oncolytic Parvovirus LuIII by Electron Microscopy and 3D Image Reconstruction. Viruses 9:
Subramanian, Suriyasri; Organtini, Lindsey J; Grossman, Alec et al. (2017) Cryo-EM maps reveal five-fold channel structures and their modification by gatekeeper mutations in the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) capsid. Virology 510:216-223
Meir, Chen; Mincberg, Michal; Rostovsky, Irina et al. (2017) The MVMp P4 promoter is a host cell-type range determinant in vivo. Virology 506:141-151
Nakaya, Yuki; Stavrou, Spyridon; Blouch, Kristin et al. (2016) In Vivo Examination of Mouse APOBEC3- and Human APOBEC3A- and APOBEC3G-Mediated Restriction of Parvovirus and Herpesvirus Infection in Mouse Models. J Virol 90:8005-12
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Vollmers, Ellen M; D'Abramo Jr, Anthony; Cotmore, Susan F et al. (2014) Genome sequence of tumor virus x, a member of the genus protoparvovirus in the family parvoviridae. Genome Announc 2:
Halder, Sujata; Cotmore, Susan; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie et al. (2014) Profiling of glycan receptors for minute virus of mice in permissive cell lines towards understanding the mechanism of cell recognition. PLoS One 9:e86909
Cotmore, Susan F; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Chiorini, John A et al. (2014) The family Parvoviridae. Arch Virol 159:1239-47
Li, Lei; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter (2013) Parvoviral left-end hairpin ears are essential during infection for establishing a functional intranuclear transcription template and for efficient progeny genome encapsidation. J Virol 87:10501-14
Vollmers, Ellen M; Tattersall, Peter (2013) Distinct host cell fates for human malignant melanoma targeted by oncolytic rodent parvoviruses. Virology 446:37-48

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