This is an R01 competing continuation application to study the mechanism of action of antioxidants [the isothiocyanates, sulforaphane (SFN) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] and the anti-inflammatory [the beta diketones, curcumin (CUR) and dibenzoylmethane (DBM)] effects, alone or in combination against colorectal cancer. In the last few years we have pursued the application of ITCs for the prevention of intestinal cancer in genetic APCmin/+ mice and the mechanisms of inhibition of intestinal cancer. We found that the ITCs induce a series of in vivo and in vitro effects including (1) in vivo inhibition of intestinal tumors in APCmin/+ by SFN and PEITC;(2) ITCs treatments resulted in decreased levels of inflammatory markers in the intestinal tumor, inhibition of cell survival and growth-related signaling pathways and modulation of cell cycle/apoptotic biomarkers;(3) ITCs induce apoptotic cell death via mitochondria cytochrome c release and activation of caspases in HT-29 colon cancer cells;(4) ITCs activate MAPKs leading to cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells. In addition, we obtained preliminary data that using the Nrf2-/- mice, of which Nrf2 is known to be a transcriptional factor that plays critical role in cytoprotection against inflammation and oxidative stresses, Nrf2-deficient mice were found to be more susceptible to inflammatory agent DSS-induced colitis. The increased severity of colitis in Nrf2-/- mice was found to be associated with decreased expression of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes but increased in proinflammatory mediators/cytokines Furthermore, we found that PEITC protected against DSS-induced colitis in Nrf2+/+ but not in Nrf2-/- mice and that Nrf2-/- mice were more susceptible to azoxymethane (AOM)-DSS-induced colon tumors. Importantly, CUR potently protected against AOM-DSS- induced colon tumors in the Nrf2+/+ mice. Additionally, there is increasing interest and scientific rationale in the use of combinations of lower doses of chemopreventive agents possessing different mechanisms of action as a means of obtaining increased efficacy and minimized toxicity . Therefore, using our newly developed mouse colon cancer models, we would like to test our hypothesis that the antioxidants ITCs alone or in combination with anti-inflammatory CUR/DBM prevent colon cancer efficiently and safely, primarily by increasing the levels of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes and inhibition of inflammatory/pro- growth signaling molecules with three Specific Aims.
Aim 1. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of SFN, PEITC, CUR and DBM alone or in combination using DSS-induced experimental colitis model and chemopreventive effects of these compounds against AOM/DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2-/- mice.
Aim 2 is to investigate the role of Nrf2 in APC-mediated tumorigenesis using APCmin/+ and APC1638 mice and prevention by SFN, PEITC, CUR or DBM.
Aim 3 is to examine the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of carcinogenesis and anticarcinogenesis of critical markers/genes observed in Aims 1 and 2 that are potentially conferring protection against colorectal carcinogenesis. Colorectal cancer is the third most common and leading cause of cancer mortality in the US. This is an R01 competing application to study the mechanism of dietary phytochemicals isothiocyanates (sulforaphane and PEITC) and phenolic compounds (curcumin and DBM) alone or in combination against colorectal cancer.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-ONC-S (02))
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Lubet, Ronald A
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Rutgers University
Schools of Pharmacy
New Brunswick
United States
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Cheung, Ka Lung; Lee, Jong Hun; Khor, Tin Oo et al. (2014) Nrf2 knockout enhances intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice due to attenuation of anti-oxidative stress pathway while potentiates inflammation. Mol Carcinog 53:77-84
Lee, Jong Hun; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin et al. (2013) Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression. Pharmacol Ther 137:153-71
Su, Zheng-Yuan; Shu, Limin; Khor, Tin Oo et al. (2013) A perspective on dietary phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: oxidative stress, nrf2, and epigenomics. Top Curr Chem 329:133-62
Wang, Hu; Lin, Wen; Shen, Guoxiang et al. (2011) Development and validation of an LC-MS-MS method for the simultaneous determination of sulforaphane and its metabolites in rat plasma and its application in pharmacokinetic studies. J Chromatogr Sci 49:801-6
Kim, Jung-Hwan; Chen, Chi; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng (2011) Resveratrol inhibits genistein-induced multi-drug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) expression in HepG2 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 512:160-6
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Saw, Constance Lay Lay; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony (2011) Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 as a chemopreventive target in colorectal cancer. Expert Opin Ther Targets 15:281-95
Cheung, Ka Lung; Kong, Ah-Ng (2010) Molecular targets of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane for cancer chemoprevention. AAPS J 12:87-97
Swanson, Hollie I; Njar, Vincent C O; Yu, Zhen et al. (2010) Targeting drug-metabolizing enzymes for effective chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Drug Metab Dispos 38:539-44
Cheung, Ka Lung; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Mou-Tuan et al. (2010) Differential in vivo mechanism of chemoprevention of tumor formation in azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate mice by PEITC and DBM. Carcinogenesis 31:880-5

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