This application is a competitive renewal of R01-CA-113941 and seeks to address the needs of heath care, particularly in the area of cancer. The overall goal of our project is to investigate and improve time-of-flight (TOF) PET imaging, and to develop technology for the next generation of TOF PET imaging instruments. Advanced technology for TOF PET is already under development, and we designed this application to carry on this work. Even with technology available commercially today, TOF has been shown to improve the quality of the reconstructed images and aid in the clinical interpretation of disease. The TOF technique requires an accurate measurement of the time difference between the two 511-keV gamma rays that result from the positron annihilation of the radioactive isotope (e.g., 18F) tagged to the PET tracer. TOF PET systems depend on fast scintillation detectors and triggering electronics to measure and record the TOF information accurately, as well as data correction and image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate the TOF information. We have developed PET detectors, both lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) and lutetium (yttrium) oxyorthosilicate (LYSO), which have excellent timing performance for TOF as well as sensitivity, energy resolution and spatial resolution required for state-of-the-art whole-body PET imaging. We have completed construction and initial testing of a research proto-type scanner based on lanthanum bromide detectors (La-PET) and we have achieved a system timing resolution of 375 ps, energy resolution of 7%, and spatial resolution of 5.8 mm. In addition we have performed extensive measurements with the Philips Gemini TF PET/CT scanner in our clinic to evaluate TOF PET with patient data as well as phantoms. This scanner utilizes LYSO with an intrinsic timing resolution of 600 ps, but operates at about 650 ps for typical patient studies. Availability of both TOF PET scanners provides us with a unique opportunity to assess the relative impact of timing resolution compared to the conventional metrics of performance, including spatial resolution and sensitivity. We plan to take a systems approach to evaluate each component of the system, first to optimize the existing technology, and to guide the development of new techniques for improved performance. Each major factor affecting system performance - the scintillation detector, the calibrations and processing electronics, data correction techniques, and the image reconstruction algorithm - will be studied independently and as part of the system. Evaluation of these factors will be defined in terms of their impact on image quality and quantification and their effects on the tasks involved in the study of cancer and other disease using PET, such as lesion detectability and lesion contrast estimation. We will use methodologies that are predictive of the human's ability to identify and quantify activity uptake in lesions, thus guiding the utilization of TOF PET for the study of cancer.

Public Health Relevance

The overall goal of our project is to investigate and improve time-of-flight (TOF) PET imaging, and to develop technology for the next generation of TOF PET imaging instruments. Evaluation of the factors that contribute to imaging performance will be defined in terms of their impact on image quality and quantification and their effects on the tasks involved in the study of cancer and other disease using PET. We will use methodologies that are predictive of the human's ability to identify and quantify activity uptake in lesions, thus guiding the utilization of TOF PET for the study of cancer.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01CA113941-07
Application #
8207266
Study Section
Biomedical Imaging Technology Study Section (BMIT)
Program Officer
Zhang, Yantian
Project Start
2005-04-01
Project End
2014-12-31
Budget Start
2012-01-01
Budget End
2012-12-31
Support Year
7
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$516,646
Indirect Cost
$192,906
Name
University of Pennsylvania
Department
Radiation-Diagnostic/Oncology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
042250712
City
Philadelphia
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
19104
Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D (2016) A unified Fourier theory for time-of-flight PET data. Phys Med Biol 61:601-24
Matej, Samuel; Li, Yusheng; Panetta, Joseph et al. (2016) Image-based Modeling of PSF Deformation with Application to Limited Angle PET Data. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 63:2599-2606
Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S (2016) Advances in time-of-flight PET. Phys Med 32:12-22
Berker, Yannick; Li, Yusheng (2016) Attenuation correction in emission tomography using the emission data--A review. Med Phys 43:807-32
Schmall, Jeffrey P; Karp, Joel S; Werner, Matt et al. (2016) Parallax error in long-axial field-of-view PET scanners-a simulation study. Phys Med Biol 61:5443-5455
Matej, Samuel; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Karp, Joel S (2016) Analytic TOF PET reconstruction algorithm within DIRECT data partitioning framework. Phys Med Biol 61:3365-86
Surti, S; Karp, J S (2015) Impact of detector design on imaging performance of a long axial field-of-view, whole-body PET scanner. Phys Med Biol 60:5343-58
Surti, Suleman (2015) Update on time-of-flight PET imaging. J Nucl Med 56:98-105
Schmall, Jeffrey P; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S (2015) Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI. Phys Med Biol 60:3549-65
Li, Yusheng; Defrise, Michel; Metzler, Scott D et al. (2015) Transmission-less attenuation estimation from time-of-flight PET histo-images using consistency equations. Phys Med Biol 60:6563-83

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