We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) induces differentiation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are involved in multi-drug resistance and are upregulated in AML isolates. We have designed a class of diazeniumdiolate prodrugs that release NO upon interaction with glutathione in a reaction catalyzed by GST. Screening a library of these compounds with extensive lead optimization has led to the identification of O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4- ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate or JS-K as the most active compound of this class. JS-K has shown potent anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo. JS-K has challenging solubility properties. Preliminary pharmacologic studies have shown that JS-K reacts with blood components. The goal of this research project is the pre-clinical development of JS-K for the treatment of AML. For that purpose we will work on developing a nanoscale delivery system that will solubilize and stabilize JS-K in vivo. We will pursue the following aims: 1- Development of a micellar formulation for JS-K. Using Pluronics?, we will develop a micellar formulation of JS-K aiming at enhancing its solubilization and decreasing its reactivity with blood components. 2- Study the pharmacologic properties of JS-K in a micellar formulation. Using micellar formulations developed in Aim 1, we will study the pharmacology of JS-K in mice. 3- Study the in vivo efficacy of a micellar formulation of JS-K in mouse leukemia models. Using the formulations developed in Aim 1, we will study the anti-leukemic properties of JS-K in vivo using AML xenograft models in NOD/SCID IL2R?null mice. At the completion of this work, we will have a workable formulation of JS-K for clinical development. This work will add to our armamentarium a new class of potent anti- leukemic agents. Narrative Relevance to public health: There is a great need for new drugs to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Work done in this project will develop a new drug called JS-K for the treatment of AML. This work will lead to great improvements in treatment of AML and other cancers.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Project (R01)
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Developmental Therapeutics Study Section (DT)
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Fu, Yali
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University of Utah
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
Salt Lake City
United States
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Kaur, Imit; Kosak, Ken M; Terrazas, Moises et al. (2015) Effect of a Pluronic(®) P123 formulation on the nitric oxide-generating drug JS-K. Pharm Res 32:1395-406
Kaur, Imit; Terrazas, Moises; Kosak, Ken M et al. (2013) Cellular distribution studies of the nitric oxide-generating antineoplastic prodrug O(2) -(2,4-dinitrophenyl)1-((4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate formulated in Pluronic P123 micelles. J Pharm Pharmacol 65:1329-36
Shami, P J; Deininger, M (2012) Evolving treatment strategies for patients newly diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia: the role of second-generation BCR-ABL inhibitors as first-line therapy. Leukemia 26:214-24
Maciag, Anna E; Nandurdikar, Rahul S; Hong, Sam Y et al. (2011) Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) pathway characterizes effective arylated diazeniumdiolate-based nitric oxide-releasing anticancer prodrugs. J Med Chem 54:7751-8
Maciag, Anna E; Chakrapani, Harinath; Saavedra, Joseph E et al. (2011) The nitric oxide prodrug JS-K is effective against non-small-cell lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: involvement of reactive oxygen species. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:313-20
Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Anderson, Kenneth C; Kutok, Jeffery L et al. (2010) JS-K has potent anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and inhibits tumour angiogenesis in a multiple myeloma model in vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol 62:145-51
Shami, Paul J; Maciag, Anna E; Eddington, Jordan K et al. (2009) JS-K, an arylating nitric oxide (NO) donor, has synergistic anti-leukemic activity with cytarabine (ARA-C). Leuk Res 33:1525-9