Tobacco use remains a significant public health problem and is increasingly prevalent among vulnerable groups. Appalachians have a high prevalence of tobacco use and are at increased risk for tobacco-attributable diseases. The efficacy of a scientifically valid tobacco cessation treatment delivered to Appalachian smokers remains untested. Also, little is known about the association of social-contextual factors that may modify or mediate the success of an intervention. These factors may be of particular relevance among disadvantaged smokers. Geographical patterns of tobacco exposure may also influence one's ability to quit, especially in pro- tobacco regions like Appalachia. The purposes of this application are to: 1) evaluate the efficacy of a lay-led (LL) intervention in promoting long term abstinence from tobacco;and 2) examine the association between 12 month abstinence and selected individual, interpersonal, organizational, neighborhood and community, and societal factors among adult Appalachian tobacco users exposed to a tobacco cessation intervention.
A third aim i s exploratory and includes the characterization of activity patterns using space-time measures among adult Appalachian tobacco users exposed to a tobacco cessation intervention. Using a group randomized trial design, 708 Appalachian residents from 6 intervention and 6 control counties will be randomly assigned by county to receive the LL intervention or a control condition which includes proactive telephone counseling via the Ohio Quit Line. LL group participants will receive face-to-face counseling, supervised by a county health department nurse, and delivered by a trained lay educator. A county Extension agent will assist with recruitment and retention efforts in this project. Social-contextual factors will be assessed at a baseline interview administered to all participants. Space-time activity geographical patterns of pro- and anti-tobacco exposures, or features, will be described among selected participants in four counties during weeks 1, 6 and 12 of treatment. At end of treatment and 6 and 12 months, LL and control group participants will be reassessed for tobacco use via self-report and cotinine-validation. Analyses will involve fitting a mixed-model ANCOVA to 12 month tobacco use data to estimate the intervention's effect and a mixed model logistic regression to examine abstinence and selected social-contextual factors. Secondary analyses will explore differential trends over time between the two arms of the study. In a subset of the sample, pro- and anti-tobacco exposures will be estimated during weeks 1, 6 and 12 of treatment.
The proposed study examines the efficacy of a scientifically valid tobacco cessation intervention with Ohio Appalachian community residents, a group known to have increased rates of tobacco-attributable diseases. We will also examine social and contextual factors associated with tobacco cessation. Finally, in selected neighborhoods and communities, we will characterize pro- and anti-tobacco features that may influence cessation, using a novel geographical information system to describe patterns of exposure.
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