People with physical disabilities experience similar health disparities as other disadvantaged groups (e.g., no insurance, decreased access to medical and preventive care, more co-morbidities) but significantly less attention is paid to their health promotion. While smoking cessation interventions have been developed for other disadvantaged groups, none exist for people with physical disabilities. People with physical disabilities (mobility impairments) who use assistance to ambulate have higher smoking rates (32.5%) than people who have a disability and do not need assistance (23%) and people who are not disabled (19.8%;Brawarsky et al. 2002).
The aims of the current study are to: 1) develop a series of theory-based intervention DVDs focused on motivating smoking cessation among people with mobility impairments (i.e., chronically use some type of assistance to walk such as walker, cane, wheelchair, braces, etc) and 2) test the efficacy of the Intervention DVDs vs. Print-based Standard Care among 560 smokers with mobility impairments in a randomized trial. The materials in both groups will be mailed on a monthly basis for four months, and are organized in separate sections according to readiness to quit. Participants in both groups will receive a) nicotine patches at no cost if they are ready to quit and b) brief phone calls (~5 minutes) between mailings to assess and encourage viewing the materials. We hypothesize that smokers who are randomized to receive the Intervention DVDs will be significantly more likely to achieve 7-day and 30-day point-prevalence abstinence at 1, 6, and 12- month follow-ups vs. those who receive Print-based Standard Care. The Intervention DVDs will be based on Behavioral Activation Theory, and address specific barriers to quitting in this population (increased stress, decreased positive affect, increased depressed mood, activity restriction, and self-efficacy). We hypothesize that the intervention will impact these mediators directly, as well as indirectly through Behavioral Activation (goal setting and pleasant events). Our series of preliminary studies support the use of these mediators for people with mobility impairments and the use of DVDs as an acceptable mode of intervention, given the economic and mobility limitations of this population. If effective, our DVD intervention could have a high level of public health and clinical significance, as it could be easily disseminated at low cost through national disability-related organizations, networks of independent living centers, or physician offices, and substantially improve the health and quality of life for people with physical disabilities. This study is innovative because no studies have targeted this population, it applies Behavioral Activation Theory to smoking cessation, and it examines relatively novel mediators in the field of smoking (e.g., positive affect, behavioral activation).
No smoking cessation interventions exist that target smokers with mobility impairments, though 32.5% of this population smokes. The current study aims to develop theory-based Intervention DVD's for smoking cessation for people with mobility impairments and test its efficacy for increasing smoking cessation vs. print-based standard care in a randomized trial.
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